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Chapter 4

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY100H1
Professor
Dan Dolderman
Semester
Fall

Description
Sociology 9242012 111200 AM Socialization Chapter 3What is Socialization Negativism Stage The stage that many two year olds pass throughDuring this stage the child will often be contrary and obstinate refusing to cooperate in simple tasks and saying no to everythingeveryoneThe child may even break norms or accepted ways of doing things in the household such as breaking dishesetcNegativism is the way a child learns what really can or cannot be doneIt is a way of testing the limits to find out which of the many nos they hear are serious and which are only a preference The social process whereby they undergo such development through interacting with the people around them is known as socializationTo be socialized means to learn how to act and interact appropriately with others to become competent and effective member of society Sociologist assert that to be socialized is also to develop a selfa sense of individual identity that allows us to understand ourselves and differentiate ourselves from others To have a self we must interact with others to interact competently we must reflect on and understand ourselves in relation to those others Socialization then is a lifelong process of social interaction during which the individual acquires a selfidentity and skills needed for living in society Primary Socialization is the crucial learning process that occurs in childhood and makes us members of societySecondary Socialization is learning that occurs after people have undergone primary socializationIt is not only norms that regulate behavior there are many conventions rituals rules and laws that direct our behavior both with people whom we know well and with strangers Norms make smooth and orderly interaction possible freeing us from the need to plan every step we take and communicate in detail with everyone we meet about all the possible ways we could interact The content of socialization differs greatly from one society to another A subculture is a group within the larger culture that has distinctive values norms and practices Nature and Nurture Instincts are inborn patterns of behavior that are often responses to specific stimuliNaturebiological inheritance Nurturethe social environmentEach of us is born with a set of human potentialsNature and nurture interact in contributing to human development They are both complementary and inseparableWe become human through the process of social interactionWithout the contact socialization is impaired the individual is but a shell of a human being and irreversible damage may be done to the persons sense of self ExampleChildren who have been locked up they are 7 but have the development of a 2 year old Socialization is essential both the physical wellbeing and to the social competence of an infantIt is through interaction that such a sense of self emerges and the development of the self is a crucial part of socialization Socialization not only learning about others but also developing a sense of self Charles Horton Cooley 1902 Introduced the idea of the lookingglass self suggesting that the gestures and reactions of others are a mirror or looking glass in which we see ourselves Without the social mirror there can be no sense of selfFor Cooley selfimage emerges as a product of involvement in groups and communication with others
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