Sociology 9/26/2012 8:46:00 AM
Socialization- Chapter 3
What is Socialization?
Negativism Stage- The stage that many two year olds pass through. During this
stage, the child will often be contrary and obstinate, refusing to cooperate in simple
tasks and saying ”no” to everything/everyone. The child may even break norms or
accepted ways of doing things in the household such as breaking dishes..etc.
Negativism is the way a child learns what really can or cannot be done. It is a
way of testing the limits to find out which of the many no;s they hear are serious
and which are only a preference.
The social process whereby they undergo such development through interacting
with the people around them is known as socialization.
To be socialized means to learn how to act and interact appropriately with others, to
become competent and effective member of society.
Sociologist assert that to be socialized is also to develop a self, a sense of individual
identity that allows us to understand ourselves and differentiate ourselves from
To have a self, we must interact with others; to interact competently, we must
reflect on and understand ourselves in relation to those others.
Socialization then, is a lifelong process of social interaction during which the individual acquires
a self-identity and skills needed for living in society.
Primary Socialization is the crucial learning process that occurs in childhood and makes us
members of society.
Secondary Socialization is learning that occurs after people have undergone primary
It is not only norms that regulate behavior, there are many conventions, rituals, rules and laws
that direct our behavior both with people whom we know well and with strangers.
Norms make smooth and orderly interaction possible, freeing us from the need to plan every
step we take and communicate in detail with everyone we meet about all the possible ways
we could interact. The content of socialization differs greatly from one society to another.
A subculture is a group within the larger culture that has distinctive values, norms and
Nature and Nurture:
Instincts are inborn patterns of behavior that are often responses to specific stimuli.
Nurture-the social environment
Each of us is born with a set of human potentials. Nature and nurture interact in
contributing to human development. They are both complementary and
We become human through the process of social interaction. Without the contact,
socialization is impaired, the individual is but a shell of a human being, and
irreversible damage may be done to the person‟s sense of self. Example- Children
who have been locked up …they are 7 but have the development of a 2 year old.
Socialization is essential both the physical well-being and to the social competence
of an infant. It is through interaction that such a sense of self emerges, and the
development of the self is a crucial part of socialization.
Socialization not only learning about others, but also developing a sense of self
Charles Horton Cooley (1902)
-Introduced the idea of the looking-glass self, suggesting that the gestures and
reactions of others are a mirror or “looking glass” in which we see ourselves.
Without the social mirror, there can be no sense of self. For Cooley, self-image
emerges as a product of involvement in groups and communication with others.
The first images of the self are received from significant others- those people such as
parents, who are of central importance to the individual in the development of the
self. The Primary Group- he small group that is characterized by intimate, face-
face association and cooperation. Cooley suggested, the structure and content of the self are derived from society,
which is represented by the groups and significant others surrounding the
George Herbert Mead ( 1934)
-His major contribution was a theory of the relationship among mind, self and
society that became the foundation od symbolic interactionism and influenced many
sociologists who use a wide variety of perspectives. He did not assume that
socialization consists largely of learning to conform to the rest of society. Rather, he
saw socialization as an active process in which individuals play a crucial role in
their own development. He also suggested, is the ability to communicate, especially
to make use of symbolic communication. Symbols are gestures, objects or sounds
that stand for something else and whose meaning depends on shared
understandings. The use of symbols enables the child to think of itself in relation to
others and is at the core od all stages of the socialization process.
Taking the role of the other involves anticipating in advance how others will see
and react to you. It is an essential skill that children must develop to be effective
members of society. It also makes the children develop a sense of self.
Three Stages in Taking the Role of the Other: Described by Mead:
1. Imitative stage – children two yrs & under do not interact effectively with others
because they cannot take the role of the other. They merely imitate the behavior
2. Game Stage – children have developed a generalized impression of the behavior
people expect as well as awareness of their own importance to the group & vie
3. Play Stage- children begin to adopt the roles of significant others- a parent,
sports coach..etc & their play shifts from imitative to imaginative.
Socialization in this sense is an active process because it proceeds through
interaction with others.
The „Me‟ and the „I‟:
W are not only subjects- thinking, knowing, and feeling beings- but also objects to
ourselves- social and cultural beings whom we can evaluate, respond to, have
feelings about & try to modify.
Mead suggested that we are first aware of ourselves as social objects. He called this
element the ME. Accompanying the me is the subjective or active part of the self, the I. It allows us to react to and assess ourselves to engage in what Mead called
Willis‟s Application and Extension of Mead‟s Theory:
The recognition that socialization implies both conformity and creativity and that
individual must both deal with constrains and take advantage of opportunities
underlies the work of British sociologist, Paul Wills.
Wills looks at youth instead of children & more importantly, by recognizing the
institutional and social contexts writing which the self is forged, maintained &
He argued that teens & young adults are still engaged in a process of developing
their identity and sense of self. What becomes evident is the significance of social
location, that is, class, race, ethnicity, gender, and the institutional and social
collectivities of which people may be members. Membership makes a difference.
Commercialization also makes a difference, as cultural industries try to profit from
the desire of young people to have fun, express themselves and be up-to-date.
His argument Is that we are all creative individuals trying to transform the world
in ways that allow us to express and control ourselves. Example: usernames- they
provide youth to be communicative to name themselves in a way that tells others
something distinctive about them. It attempts to control how others respond to the
Willis reminds us that the human being is a creative and strategic social actor,
rather than a social dope or the pawn of vast, impersonal forces. He also
acknowledges that social categories do make a difference, Socialization is not a
unitary process. Different categories of people will participate in socialization in
different ways. One important of those differences is gender.
-Gender Socialization is the „process through which individuals learn to become
feminine and masculine according to expectations currents in their society.‟
Patterns of gender role socialization reveal that, from the first days of life, an infant
is not simply a child but a boy or girl.
Parents are usually the first source of children‟s gender learning. Parents hold and
communicate different expectations for males and females. The Study of gender shows us that children and adults are socialized to respond to
their social world by developing certain potentials and inhibiting others.
The Mass media, present idealized images and stereotypes of appropriate masculine
and feminine characteristics.
Adolescence And Youth:
Status: refers to the culturally and socially defined position a person occupies in an
Adolescence, the period between childhood and adulthood is a crucial period in their
life in which people undergo new experiences, deal with new demands and
responsibilities, and strive to develop an identity that is distinctly, their own.
Adolescence is also a period of anticipatory socialization- involves the beginning to
take on the norms and behaviors of a role you aspire to but do not yet occupy.
Adult Socialization: the process by which adults take on new statuses and acquire
new and different identities.
Three types of Students: (distinguished by Albas and Albas)
1. Aces- high achieving, nose in books
2. Bombers- low achieving
3. Moderates- ration their time & energy among different roles.
Marriage is one of the most important changes in anyone‟s life, and is therefore
perhaps the most important example of adult socialization. Adult socialization may
include a development of a career.
Socialization Among Seniors:
-The period that the individual is most directly confronted by the lowered prestige,
decreased physical ability and the prospect of chronic illness and death. It also
involves facing death/dying.
Agents of Socialization: are the individuals, groups, and institutions that impart,
and form which we acquire, the range of information required to interact effectively
and participate in society.
---The most important agent of socialization is family. The Central function of schools industrial society is the teaching of skills and
knowledge, but they also transmit society‟s central cultural values and languages.
Schools expose children to situations to which rules apply to everyone.
Peer Group- compromises individuals who are usually of the same age and enjoy
approximately equal status. They provide young people with a looking glass
unclouded by love or duty and an opportunity to learn roles/values that adults do
not teach them.
Generalized Other- a conception of how people in general will respond in a
Resocialization is the deliberate attempt to correct or instill particular values and
behaviors in an individual group.
Total Institutions are setting in which people are isolated from the rest of ociety for
a set period and where all the aspects of a person‟s life are regulated under one
authority. Introduction To Environment Psychology
The Mind and Consciousness- Chapter 4
Locked in Syndrome: occurs when part of the brain stem gets damaged.
Has been compared to being buried alive.
Two Main Points to this Chapter:
a. People can be conscious of their surroundings even when they do
not appear to be
b. Conscious experience are associated with the brain activity and
understanding this brain activity might help us to better understand
- Consciousness is very real!
Consciousness refers to moment by moment subjective experiences, such as
reflecting on one‟s current thoughts, or paying attention to one‟s
Two types of consciousness:
1. The contents of consciousness (the things we are conscious of)
2. The level of consciousness (such as a coma, sleep and weakness)
Rene Descartes stated that the mind is physically distinct from the brain, a
view of consciousness called dualism.
Scientist snow believe that the brain and the mind are inseparable. The
activity of neurons in the brain produces the contents of consciousness.
Because each of us experiences consciousness personally-that is, the
subjectively- we cannot know if any two people experience the worl din the
Qualia- philosophers use this term to describe the properties of our
Your level of consciousness varies naturally through the day in your
sleep/wake cycle. It will be affected by your actions, and by consciousness-
altering substances you consume. A strategy formed in the 1940‟s is to cut connections within the brain to try
to isolate the site of seizure initiation, so a seizure that beings at that site
will less likely spread throughout the cortex.
When the corpus callosum is severed the brains halves are almost
completely isolated from each other, a condition called split brain.
Left hemisphere is dominant for language; right hemisphere is better with
spatial relationships. The right brain can act on perception. Splitting the
brain then, produces two half brains, each with its own perceptions,
thoughts, and consciousness.
The left hemisphere‟s propensity to construct a world that makes sense is
called the interpreter because the left hemisphere is interpreting what the
right hemisphere has done. The interpreter strongly influences the way we
view and remember the world.
We are aware of some mental processes and not aware of others.
Subliminal perception- information processed without conscious awareness.
This can influence cognition, it refers to stimuli that get processed by
sensory systems, but because of their short durations or subtle forms, do
not reach consciousness.
Blindsight- A condition in which people who are blind have some spared
visual capacities in the absence of any visual awareness.
Different areas of the brain deal with different types of information, and each
of these systems in turn is responsible for conscious awareness of its type of
information. What is sleep?
Many brain regions are more active during sleep than during wakefulness.
During sleep, the brain is still active. The conscious experience of the
outside world is largely turned off, but to some extent people remain aware
of their surroundings, as when sleeping parents sense their babies rustling in
The difference between being awake and being asleep has as much to do
with conscious experience as with biological processes. When you sleep, you
are not conscious, but your brain still processes information & remains
aware of your environment.
Stages of Sleep:
When people close their eyes and relax, brain activity slows down and
becomes more synchronized, a pattern that produces alpha waves.
As you drift off to sleep, you enter stage 1- theta waves.
- You can be aroused easily.
- If woken, you would deny you were sleeping
- You might see fantastical images or geometric shapes
- You have the sensation that you are falling or that your limbs are
As you process to stage 2, your breathing becomes more regular and you
become less sensitive to external stimulation. You are really asleep! The
EEG would show theta waves. It would also show occasional burst of activity
called sleep spindles and large waves called k-complexes.
The progression to deep sleep occurs through stages 3 & 4. There are
large, regular brain patterns called delta waves. This period is also referred
to as slow-wave sleep. People are very hard to wake and often very
disoriented when they do wake up.
Brain Activity During Sleep: Rem Sleep:
- After about 90 minutes of sleep, the sleep cycle reverses, returning to
stage 3 & then to stage 2. It shows a flurry of betta wave activity that
usually indicates an awake, alert mind. The eyes dart back and forth rapidly
beneath closed eyelids and for those rapid eye movements, this stage is
called Rem Sleep.
When the brain is active during REM episodes, most of the body‟s muscles
are paralyzed. At the same time, the body shows signs of genital arousal-
males develop erections & females experience clitoral engorgement.
The sleep cycle repeats, as the sleeper progresses from slow-wave sleep
through to REM sleep, then back to slow-wave sleep and through to REM.
Insomnia is a sleep disorder in which peoples mental health and ability to
function are compromised by their inability to sleep. A major cause of this is
worrying about sleep. Sleep Apnea- a disorder in which a person stops breathing for temporary
periods while asleep, resulting in a loss of oxygen and sleep destruction.
Narcolepsy- a sleep disorder in which people fall asleep during normal
Researchers have proposed 3 general explanations for sleep‟s adaptiveness:
2. Circadian cycles
3. Facilitation of learning
Restorative theory- sleep allows the brain and body to rest and to repair
Sleep deprivison Is also dangerous and potentially disastrous because it
makes people prone to mircosleeps, in which they fall asleep during the day
for periods ranging to a few seconds to a minute.
Circadian Rhythms are the regulation of biological cycles into regular
Circadian Rhythms Cycle: sleep has evolved to keep animals quiet and
inactive during times of the day when there is greatest danger, usually when
it is dark.
The pineal gland secrets melatonin, a hormone that travels through the
bloodstream and affects various receptors in both the body and the brain.
Bright light suppress the production of melatonin, whereas darkness triggers
Recticular formation in the brain stem leads to increased arousal in the
Dreams are the product of an altered state of consciousness in which images
and fantasies are confused with reality.
…..The average person spends 6 years dreaming!
Dreams occur during REM and non-REM sleep: -REM dreams are more likely to be bizarre, involving intense emotions,
visual and auditory hallucinations, illogical contents and uncritical acceptance
- Non-REM dreams are very dull. About mundane activities like taking notes
in class or what to wear the next day.
Manifest content-the plot of a dream; the way a dream is remembered
Latent content- what a dream symbolizes, or the material that is disguised in
a dream to protect the dreamer.
Activation-synthesis hypothesis- A theory of dreaming that proposes that
neural stimulation from the pons activates mechanisms that normally
interpret visual input.
Hypnosis-a social interaction during which a person, responding to
suggestions, experiences changes in memory, perception, and/or voluntary
Sociognitive theory hypnosis- hypnotized people behave as they expect
hypnotized people to behave.
Dissolation theory of hypnosis- views the hypnotic state as an altered state,
namely a trancelike one in which conscious awareness is separated, or
dissolved, from other aspects of consciousness.
Meditation- a mental procedure that focuses attention on an external object
or on a sense of awareness.
Concentrative meditation- you focus attention on one thing, such as your
breathing pattern, a mental image or a specific phrase.
Mindfulness meditation- you let your thoughts flow freely, paying attention
to them but trying not to react to them.
*** Read Pages 174-174 For Drugs & how they aff