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Chapter 13

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Ashley Waggoner Denton

Psych Chapter 1316 ReviewChapter 13 PersonalityKey TermsPsychodynamic theoryFreudian theory that unconscious forces such as wishes and motives influence behaviourPersonality the characteristic thoughts emotional responses and behaviours that are relatively stable in an individual over time and across circumstancesPersonality traita characteristic a dispositional tendency to act in a certain way over time and across circumstancesPsychosexual changeAccording to Freud the developmental stages that correspond to the pursuit of satisfaction of libidinal urgesIdpart of the psychodynamic theory the component of personality that is completely submerged in the unconscious and operates according to the pleasure principleSuperegopart of the psychodynamic theory the internalization of societal and parental standards of conductEgopart of psychodynamic theory the component of personality that tries to satisfy the wishes of the id while being responsive to the dictates of the superegoDefence mechanismsunconscious mental strategies the mind uses to protect itself from conflicts and distressHumanistic approachesapproaches to studying personality that emphasize personal experiences and belief systems they propose that people seek personal growth to fulfill their human potentialPersonality typesdiscrete categories based on global personality characteristicsTrait approachan approach to studying personality that focuses on the extent to which individuals differ in personality dispositionsFive factor theorythe idea that personality can be described using 5 factors openness to experience conscientiousness extroversion agreeableness and neuroticismIdiographic approachespersoncentered approaches to studying personality that focus on individual lives and how various characteristics are integrated into unique personsNomothetic approaches Approaches to studying personality that focus on how people vary across common traitsProjective Measurespersonality tests that examine unconscious processes by having people interpret ambiguous stimuliObjective Measuresrelatively direct assessments of personality usually based on information gathered through self report questionnaires or observer ratingsSituationismthe theory that behaviour is determined more by situations over personality traitsInteractioniststheorists who believe that behaviour is determined jointly by underlying dispositions and situationsTemperamentsbiologically based tendencies to feel or act a certain wayBehavioural Approach System BASthe brain system involved in the pursuit of incentives or rewardsBehavioural Inhibition System BISthe brain system that is sensitive to punishment and therefore inhibits behaviour that might lead to danger or painSociometeran internal monitor of social acceptance or rejectionSelf Serving Biasthe tendency for people to take personal credit for success but blame failure on external factors Key ConceptsThree Major Personality TheoristsSigmund Freud Came up with the Psychodynamic theory unconscious forces effect behaviour Proposed the topographic model of the Mindo Consciouspeople are aware of their thoughtso Preconsciouscontent that we are not currently aware of but could be brought to awarenesso Unconsciousmaterial which the mind cannot easily retrieveo Freudian Slipmaterial from the unconscious mind enters into the conscious Psychosexual stageso Oral Stagebirth to 18 months pleasure comes through the moutho Anal Stage 23 years oldlearning to control the bowelso Phallic Stage35 genital exploration Controversialbc during this time the child want exclusive relationship with opposite sex parentknown as Oedipus complexo Latency Stageurges are suppressed due to schoolwork and building friendshipso Genital Stagemature attributes about sexuality and adulthood
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