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Psychological Science - Third Canadian Edition - Chapter Thirteen Notes.docx

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INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY (CHAPTER 13) PSYCHODYNAMIC THEORIES:  A Freudian theory of personality that unconscious forces influence behaviour  Freud referred to psychic forces as instincts; multiple forces can be in conflict, and Freud viewed such conflict as the essential cause of mental illness  TOPOGRAPHICAL MODEL OF MIND - Freud believed that most of the conflict between psychological forces occurs below the level of conscious awareness - At the conscious level, people are aware of their thoughts - The preconscious level consists of content that is not currently in awareness but that could be brought to awareness - The unconscious level contains material that the mind cannot easily retrieve, but sometimes, information can leak into consciousness like during Freudian slips (person accidentally reveals a hidden motive)  DEVELOPMENT OF SEXUAL INSTINCTS - Early childhood experiences have major impact on the development of personality - Children go through developmental stages (psychosexual stages) corresponding to their pursuit of satisfaction of libidinal urges - The oral stage lasts from birth to 18 months; pleasure is sought through the mouth - In the anal phase, children 2-3 years old are toilet trained which leads them to focus on the anus, learning to control the bowels - The phallic stage, children 3-5 years old direct their libidinal energies toward the genitals; children have pleasure in rubbing their genitals - In the latency stage, libidinal urges and suppressed into doing schoolwork and building friendships - In the genital stage, adolescents and adults attain mature attitudes about sexuality and adulthood; libidinal urges are focused on reproduction - Those fixated at the oral stage develop oral personalities and continue to seek pleasure through the mouth (ex: smoking) - Those fixated at the anal phase may have anal-retentive personalities, being stubborn and highly regulating  STRUCTURAL MODEL OF PERSONALITY - The mind is organized in three structures/levels - The ID is the basic level and submerged in the unconscious; operates according to the pleasure principle; acting on impulses and desires; forces that drive the ID are sex and aggression - The SUPEREGO is the internalization of parental and societal standards of conduct; a structure of morality and conscience - The EGO tries to satisfy the wishes of the ID while being responsive to the dictates of the SUPEREGO; operates according to the reality principle (rational thought and problem solving) - Conflicts between the levels lead to anxiety, and the EGO copes via defence mechanisms OBJECT RELATIONS THEORY = the object of attachment is another person HUMANISTIC THEORIES ON PERSONALITY:  B.F Skinner argued that patterns of reinforcement determine response tendencies, which are the basis of personality  Humanistic approaches emphasize personal experience and belief systems and propose that humans seek to fulfill their potential for personal growth through greater self- understanding (self-actualization)  Focuses on subjective human experience  Abraham Maslow’s theory of motivation is an example  C. Rogers made the PERSON-CENTERED APPROACH to personality which emphasizes people’s personal understanding  theory showed the importance of parent’s affections to their children and how parental treatment affects personality development  most parents provide conditional love and support  children quickly abandon their true feelings, dreams and desires and accept only those parts of themselves that elicit parental love and support  Rogers encouraged parents to raise their children with unconditional positive regard  BROADEN-AND-BUILD THEORY = positive emotions prompt people to consider novel solutions to their problems and resilient people tend to draw on their positive emotions in dealing with setbacks or negative life experiences TYPE AND TRAIT APPROACHES:  Approach focuses more on description than explanation  Describes people as certain types  Personality types are discrete categories of people  To make predictions about people based on little evidence is called IMPLICIT PERSONALITY THEORY  The TRAIT APPROACH to personality provides a method for assessing the extent to which individuals differ in personality dispositions  Eysenck developed the HIERARCHIAL MODEL - the basic structure of the model begins at the SPECIFIC RESPONSE LEVEL, which consists of observed behaviours - repeated behaviours are at the HABITUAL RESPONSE LEVEL - if a person is observed to behave the same way on many occasions, the person is characterized as possessing a TRAIT - traits are components of SUBORDINATE TRAITS; three types are introversion/extroversion, emotional stability (the extent of mood and emotion changes) and psychoticism (level of psychopathology)  THE BIG FIVE - Identifies five basic personality traits - The five are openness to experience, conscientiousness, extroversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism [OCEAN] - Each factor is a high-order trait compromising interrelated lower-order traits - Emerge across cultures, among adults and children LEARNING AND COGNITION:  G. Kelly emphasized the importance of people’s understandings (personal consructs)  Personal constructs develop through people’s experiences and represent their interpretations and explanations for events in their social worlds  J. Rotter introduced the idea that behaviour is a function of people’s expectancies for reinforcement and the values they ascribe to particular reinforcers  People with an INTERNAL LOCUS OF CONTROL believe they bring about their own rewards  Those with EXTERNAL LOCUS OF CONTROL believe that rewards result from forces beyond their control  COGNITIVE-SOCIAL THEORIES emphasize how personal beliefs, expectancies and interpretations of social situations shape behaviour and personality  SELF-EFFIACY = when people believe they can achieve specific outcomes  People develop expectancies in part through observational learning  W. Mischel proposed that personality traits often fail to predict behaviour across different circumstances  According to his COGNITIVE-AFFECTIVE PERSONALITY SYSTEM, people’s responses are influenced by how they perceive a give situation, their emotional response to the situation, their skills in dealing with challenges, and their anticipation of the outcomes of their behaviour  The CAPS model emphasizes SELF-REGULATORY CAPACITIES, in which people set personal goals, evaluate their progress, and adjust their behaviour accordingly  Personality represents behaviour that emerges from people’s interpretation of their social worlds and from their beliefs about how they will affect and be affected by social situations IDIOGRAPHIC APPROACHES = person-centered; focus on individuals lives and how various characteristics are integrated into unique persons; use a different metric for each person; assume all individuals are unique; central traits are important for how individuals define themselves; secondary traits are less personally descriptive; central ones are more predictive than secondary ones; often examine case studies of individuals through interviews and biographical information; considers a human life as a narrative; each person weaves a life story; creates personal myths NOMOTHETIC APPROACHES = focus on characteristics common among all people but on which individuals vary; uses the same metric to compare all people; focus on common traits; researchers compare people by using common trait measures such as questionnaires METHODS TO ACCESS PERSONALITY: 1) PROJECTIVE MEASURES - Explore the unconscious by having people describe or tell stories about ambiguous stimulus items - Project their mental contents onto the ambiguous items, thereby revealing hidden aspects of personality - RORSCHACH INK BLOT TEST = people look at an apparently meaningless inkblot and describe what it looks like; is supposed to reveal unconscious conflicts and other problems - THEMATIC APPERCEPTION TEST = to study achievement motivation; a person is shown an ambiguous picture and is asked to tell a story about it; scoring of the story is based on the motivational schemes that emerge that are said to reflect the storyteller’s personal motives 2) OBJECTIVE MEASURES - Make no pretense of uncovering hidden conflicts or secret information - Measure only what the raters believe or observe - Compare people’s responses and assess the extent to which the answers predict behaviour - Usually involving self-report questionnaires or observer ratings - Are largely personality inventories such as NEO PERSONALITY INVENTORY - Difficult to compare self-reported objective measures directly because individuals respondents do not have objective standards against which to rate themselves - The CALIFORNIA Q-SORT is a technique that requires people to create 9 piles of 100 cards each with a statement; piles are made according to how accurately the statements describe them; procedure for identifying central dispositions SITUATIONISM = the theory that behaviour is determined more by situations than by personality traits PERSONALITY AND SITUATIONAL INFLUENCES OF BEHAVIOUR:  Personality traits are predictive of behaviour  people mostly conform to situational norms  the situation dictates behaviour irrespective of personality  personality psychologists differentiate between strong situations (ex: elevators) and weak situations (ex: parks)  INTERACTIONISTS = believing that behaviour is determined jointly by situations and underlying dispositions  People choose their situations CULTURAL AND GENDER DIFFERENCES IN PERSONALITY:  Studies found support for the Big Five personality traits across all the countries, in turn supporting the argument that those traits are universal for humans  There are modest differences  People from East Asia rated themselves comparatively lower than other respondents on extroversion, agreeableness and conscientiousness and higher on neuroticism  Respondents from countries in Africa rated themselves as more agreeable and conscientious and less neurotic than other countries  Self-reports often do not match cultural stereotypes about respondents  Differences between gender largely support stereotypes  Women typically report and are rated as being more empathetic and agreeable than men, and also report being more neurotic and being concerned about feelings  Men tend to report and are rated as being more assertive  Differences in personality are largest in societies in North America and Europe, which provide more equal opportunities and treatment and smallest in Asian and African communities  People in individualistic cultures tend to compare themselves against other groups  Women in such cultures describe themselves in ways that differentiate them from men, thereby creating gender differences in personality  Cultural differences in the gender gap result from cultural differences in how people compare themselves rather than from any genuine cultural differences WHAT ARE THE BIOLOGICAL BASES OF PERSONALITY:  ANIMALS HAVE PERSONALITIES - The principles of evolution suggest a continuity across species in that humans and other animals evolved as they solved occasionally similar adaptive challenges - Possibility that animals might display consistent individu
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