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CH12 – SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY (textbook notes)

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Ashley Waggoner Denton

CH12 – SOCAIL PSYCHOLOGY – INCOMPLETE How Do Attitudes Guide Behavior  SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY – scientific study of the effects of social and o COGNITIVE DISSONANCE – An uncomfortable mental state due to cognitive processes on the way individuals perceive, influence and related conflicts between attitudes or between attitudes and behavior to others  Postdecisional Dissonance  Attitude Formation  Attitude Change o ATTITUDES – The evaluation of objects, events, or ideas  Justifying Effort o Mere Exposure  Attitudes Can Be Change through Persuasion o Classical Conditioning o PERSUASION – The active and conscious effort to change attitudes o Socialization through the transmission of a message  Attitude Behavior Consistency  ELABORATION LIKELIHOOD MODEL – A theory of how persuasive messages lead to attitude changes o Attitude Strength o Explicit vs. Implicit Attitudes  Central vs. Peripheral Rout  EXPLICIT ATTITUDES – Attitudes that people can report.  Cures that influence a Message’s Persuasiveness  IMPLICIT ATTITUDES – Attitudes that influence our feelings and o Source behavior at an unconscious level o Content  Implicit Associations Test o Receiver  Discrepancies Lead to Dissonance  The message  Supportive vs. Skeptical Audiences How Do We Form Our Impression of Others  Nonverbal Actions and Expressions  STEREOTYPES – Cognitive schemas that allow for easy, fast processing of o NONVERBAL BEHAVIOR – The facial expressions, gestures, information about people based on their membership in certain groups. mannerisms, and movements by which one communicates with o Purpose others o Maintaining Stereotypes o Facial Expressions o Ethics: Testing for Prejudice o Body Language o SELF-FULFILLING PROPHECY – People’s tendency to behave in ways  Thin Slices of Behaviors that confirm their own or others’ expectations.  We Make Attributions about Others  Stereotype Threat o ATTRIBUTIONS – People’s causal explanations for why events or  PREJUDICE –when the attitude associated with a stereotype is negative. actions occur o DISCRIMINATION – The inappropriate and unjustified treatment of o Just World Hypothesis people based solely on their group membership. o Attributional Dimensions o Ingroup-Outgroup Bias  PERSONAL ATTRIBUTIONS – Explanations that refer to internal  Outgroup Homogeneity Effect characteristics, such as abilities, traits, moods, and effort.  IN-GROUP FAVORITISM – The tendency for people to evaluate  SITUATIONAL ATTRIBUTIONS – Explanations that refer to favorably and privilege members of the in-group more than
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