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CH7 – ATTENTION AND MEMORY (textbook notes)

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Ashley Waggoner Denton

CH7PERCEPTION AND LEARNINGAttention Determines What is Rememberedo Cocktail Party Phenomenonfocus single conversation midst manyAttentiondirect self to some info at cost of less attention to other infoPartly bc loudnessproximity also selective attention o Attention focus easily distractable o Shadowinglisten to 2 conversation only focus onerepeat itEpically if using same mechanism ex 2 conversationsAcknowledges other conversation but no content knowledge simultaneously vs driving and listening to musicUnattended conversation may get through attention filter o Multitaskingpossible hinders overall performancePersonally relevant information name loudnessVisual Attention Is Selective and Serial o PARALLEL PROCESSINGprocess information from diff visualSelective Attention Operate at Multiple Stages of Processing features at same time by focusing on targets ignoring distractors o Filter Theoryppl filter incoming info let in only most importantprimitive feature wi environment automatically identifiedbc limited capacity for sensory info disregards irrelevant infoExplains selective nature of attentioncolor motion orientation shape sizeSome stimuli demand attentions close attention to all otherVisual Search Tasks Feature Search Taskslook for target differ w distractors on one featureEx faces threatening ones prioritized over othersUnattended info still process to some extent unconsciouslyex a few red As target w many black As distractorsCant repeat information content still processed most effective w primitive features o CHANGE BLINDNESSthe common failure to notice large changes o Conjunction Tasksstimulus looking for has 2 simple features in environmentsSerial Processinglook at stimuli one at a timebc can only attend to limit info and large discrepancies btwncompare between multiple features what people believe they sawactually sawEffortfultakes longer requires more attentionex swap a person in middle of conversation 50 dont noticeex find red X among different colored Xs and Ysas long as replacement same race and sexAuditory Attention Allows Selective Listening Basic Stages of MemoryCentral Executivedeal w other 3 parts control systemMEMORYthe nervous systems capacity to acquire and retain usable skills and knowledgeEncodes info from sensory system filters important info o Info gathered w sense transduced into neural impulses for longterm storage o Certain memoryintricate pattern of neural activity in brainRetrieve important longterm memory as needed Information Processing Modelemulates computer processesOther 3 temporarily holds information o ENCODINGthe processing of information so that it can be storedPhonological Loopencodes auditory informationInfo changed into neural codeEx inner voice when reading o STORAGEthe retention of encoded representations over time thatEvidence errors remembering consonants sounds alike corresponds to some change in the nervous system that registers the not looks alike DT not DQ eventVisuospatial Sketchpadprocess visual info objects features o RETRIEVALThe act of recalling or remembering stored info to use it locations etcMODAL MEMROY MODELthe threestage memory system that involvesEpisodic Bufferintegrated information about oneself sensory memory shortterm memory and longterm memoryDraws from longterm episodic memory o SENSORY MEMORYmemory for sensory information that is stored briefly seconds close to its original sensory formAllows us view in continuous stream not discrete sensationsConnect one sensation ex visual image to the nextWhen sensory info leaves vanishing trace on nervous systemEx brief image of a quick glanceSperlings sensory memory experiment 3 rows of letters shown for 112 second to participantsAsk recall all can only recall 34 bc by forgotten restAsk recall specific row after display recalled almost allLonger delayworse performance recalling specific rowSperling sensory memory persist 13 of second then fades o SHORTTERM MEMORY STMa limited capacity memory system that holds information in awareness for brief periodLonger than sensory memory includes working memoryWORKING MEMORY WMan active processing system that keeps different types of information available for current useAka Immediate memory lasts 2030 seconds then disappears unless actively prevented w thinkingrehearsing on itUpdating working memoryretrieval transformationsubstitution o LONGTERM MEMORY LTMthe relatively permanent storage ofActive processing unit deal w many types of information informationMemory Spanworking memory limit 7 items 2 possibly lessCompared w WMmore capacity longer durationCHUNKINGOrganizing information into meaningfulLTM and WM separate systems but highly units to make it easier to remember interdependent ex chucking info in WM need formBaddelys Working Memory System 4 parts meaningful connection w info in LTM
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