Textbook Notes (368,295)
Canada (161,777)
Psychology (2,971)
PSY100H1 (1,821)
Chapter

CH6 – LEARNING (textbook notes)

4 Pages
60 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Psychology
Course
PSY100H1
Professor
Ashley Waggoner Denton
Semester
Fall

Description
CH6 – PERCEPTION AND LEARNING Development of behavioral study of learning  LEARNING – an enduring change in behavior, resulting from experience o John B. Watson: observable behavior only valid psychological o Critical for animals’ b/c survithl (food, shelter, etc.) indicator, anti-Freud  founded behaviorism  Rise of Learning theory in early 20 century b/c dissatisfaction w/  Tabula rasa (Locke) – blank slate, all knowledge acquired, not introspection innate o Behaviorism dominant psychological paradigm till 60s Classical Conditioning  CLASSICAL CONDITIONING (Pavlovian conditioning) – A type of learned o CONDITIONED STIMULUS (CS) – A stimulus that elicits a response response that occurs when a neutral object comes to elicit a reflexive only after learning has taken place response when it is associated with a stimulus that already produces that  Ex. Metronome = CS b/c elicits salivation after training response  Neutral stimulus  CS after Conditioning trials o CONDITIONED RESPONSE (CR) – A response to a conditioned stimulus that has been learned  Ex. Salivation = CR b/c acquired/learned response after training  Usually weaker than Unconditioned Response  Key Classical Condition Concepts o Pavlov influenced by Darwinism, believed conditioning basis for animals adapt to environments  Learning predicts object’s properties = new adaptive behaviors o ACQUISITION – The gradual formation of an association between the conditioned and unconditioned stimuli  Contiguity – US and CS occurs together in time, critical for acquisition of learned associations  Strongest conditioning when brief delay btwn CS and US  b/c It’s assumed CS predicts US o EXTINCTION – A process in which the conditioned response is weakened when the CS is repeated without the US  CR extinguished b/c CS no longer predicts US  Extinction = form of learning, overwrites previous association  Learned original association no longer true o SPONTANEOUS RECOVERY – A process in which a previously extinguished response re-emerges following presentation of the conditioned stimulus  Single pairing CS and US re-establishes CR o STIMULUS GENERALIZATION – Occurs when stimuli that are similar but not identical to the conditioned stimulus produce the conditioned response  Adaptive feature b/c naturally CS experience rarely identical o STIMULUS DISCRIMINATION – A differentiation between two similar stimuli when only one of them is consistently associated with the unconditioned stimulus. o Second-Order Conditioning – conditioned stimulus directly associated not with an unconditioned stimulus  Ex. 2 nd neutral stimulus present w/ CS w/o US, still induces CR  Pavlov’s Experiments: experimented w/ food stimulus o Salivary reflex – automatic, unlearned response, occurs when food stimulus present to hungry animal  Realized animal salivated when experimenter entered room  Response not innate, must be acquire through experience o Neutral Stimulus – unrelated to reflex, ex. metronome o Conditioning Trail – present neutral stimulus w/ stimulus that reliably produce reflex  presentation repeated number of times o Critical Trails – only neutral stimulus remains, reflex measured  Conclude neutral stimulus alone elicits reflexive response b/c associated w/ stimulus that reliably produce reflex o UNCONDITIONED RESPONSE (UR) – A response that does not have to be learned, w/o training, such as a reflex  ex. Salivation = UR b/c elicited by food  Application of Classical Conditioning o UNCONDITIONED STIMULUS (US) – A stimulus that elicits a o PHOBIA – An acquired fear that is out of proportion to the real threat response, such as a reflex without any prior learning of an object or a situation.  ex. Food = US b/c elicits salivation  Fear conditioning – Animals classically condition fear neutral  Actually: some pairing more likely associated than other objects  Conditioned food aversion – conditioned avoid particular food  ex. Flashing lights & pain, conditioned fear flashing lights followed w/ illness, esp. unusual foods  Amygdala most important brain structure for fear conditioning  Also avoid foods w/ similar smell/taste  Watson proposed phobias explained by simple learning  Can’t reproduce w/ light/sound stimuli principles (Classical Conditioning)  Biological preparedness – animals genetically programmed fear  Conditioned little Albert fear rats, original neutral specific objects  US = smashing sound; UR fear  Ex. easier condition ppl of negative traits w/ diff race  Neutral stimulus  CS = rat; CR = fear of rats o Sex Differences in Learning  Counterconditioning – associate little CR (fear) w/ pleasant  Ex. learning navigation, females more likely from map, rely on stimulus, help overcome the fear landmarks; males track compass direction  Systematic desensitization (Wolpe) – formal treatment based  Ex. females “LRLR..”; male “general direction” on counterconditioning  Performance practically identical btwn sex  patients taught relax muscles & imagine feared o Cognitive Perspective – consider metal processes (prediction, object/situation expectancy) on learning  Rescorla: neutral stimulus before US more easily condition than  CS  CR1 (fear) can be broken w/ CS  CR2 (relaxation) o Addictions – ex. coffee smell & sight of heroin needles induce effects after  Withdrawal – not satisfying cravings, un pleasant states of  Even if both continuous presentations b/c prediction tension & anxiety  Optimal delay btwn CS & US for learning varies  Treatment req. expose addicts to drug cues, extinguish  RESCORLA-WAGNER MODEL – A cognitive model of classical responses conditioning  Higher tolerances when drug taken some location b/c body  CS-US association strength determined by the extent to learned expect drug which the unconditioned stimulus is unexpected  Ex. higher alcohol tolerance when feels familiar  Novel stimuli more easily associated w/ US than familiar  Classical Conditioning Involves more than events occurring at the same  Blocking effect – a learned CS prevent new CS time  Stimulus associated w/ CS can act as Occasion setter (trigger) o Evolutionary preparedness: for CS  Pavlov: any object/phenomenon converted to CS during conditioning trails Operant Conditioning  OPERANT CONDITIONING (instrumental conditioning) – A learning  Reinforcement Increases Behavior process in which the consequence of an action determine the likelihood o Skinner reject states of satisfaction, not observable empirically that it will be performed in the future. o REINFORCER – A stimulus that follows a response and increases the o Many actions instrumental – done for a purpose (rewards) likelihood that the response will be repeated. o Operant – animals operate on environment to produce effects  Skinner: behavior (studying, eating) occurs b/c reinforced o Thorndike – place cats in puzzle boxes, study outcomes  Provided after subject display appropriate response  Cats first accidently open box; subsequent trails faster  o Skinner box – assess operant conditioning, simple chamber/cages learned response to environment rewards animals inside for certain actions  LAW OF EFFECT – Thorndike’ general theory of learning: any  Ex. levers, 1 for food another for water behavior that leads to a “satisfying state of affairs” will more o SHAPING – A process of operant conditioning; it involves reinforcing likely occur again, and any behavior that leads to an “annoying behavior that are increasingly similar to the desire behavior state of affairs” will less likely recur  b/c outside control environments (Skinner box) hard to condition subject display appropriate response  reinforcing successive approximations eventually produce desired behavior  b/c tech discriminate which behavior being reinforced  used raise children &
More Less

Related notes for PSY100H1

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit