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Chapter 1

Chapter 1

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Michael Inzlicht

Chapter 1 Introduction To The Study of Stereotyping and Prejudice  Membership in group can be restricted on basis of special skills, family relations, gender, power and host of other factors  By forming groups, humans found it possible to construct environment such that daily lives are easier  Through specialization of skills, certain groups are given over larger society o Found that they could live longer, happier and more fulfilling lives  Groups are basic building blocks of society – Forsyth  Groups not unique to humans o Theorize basic part of animals and conveyed survival benefits so successfully that withstood time and evolution  Disadvantages and complications that group life brings o Mate competition o Mate retention o Tend to form closer ties to members of their own group and tend to be suspicious and rejecting members of other groups  Ingroups: group members tend to favour their own groups  Outgroups: groups to which they don’t belong to  Minimal group: randomly assigning people to group  Prejudice: preferences that have adaptive utility from evolutionary and practical perspectives, form basis for negative feelings about other groups  Stereotypes: believing that certain characteristics are associated with other groups o Because outgroup members are perceived to be antithetical to ingroup’s welfare or values o Ingroup preferences may underlie more severe negative behavior toward other groups  Important to study prejudice and stereotyping because need to understand that negative attitudes form basis for subsequent negative intergroup behavior.  Virtually all history’s wars, battles and other acts of group violence have been driven by some form of prejudice, stereotyping and discrimination  Some believe prejudice and stereotyping are no longer problem in US o 2002, gay actor Trev Broudy was attacked outside his apartment which left him blind, unable to speak and can’t think clearly o 1998, to men beat Matthew Sheppard because he was gay Defining Stereotypes  Stereotype originally derives from term to describe printing process in which fixed casts of material are reproduced o Term was adopted by social scientists when journalist Walter Lippman used the word to describe tendency of people to think of someone or something in similar terms – having similar attributes based on common feature shared by each o We all have “pictures in our heads” to simplify sometimes confusing info we receive  Prescient in 2 respects o Remarkably accurate in speculation about origin of stereotyping when he said, “we pick out what our culture has already defined for us and we tend to perceive that which we have picked out in form stereotyped for us by our culture” o Process tends to confirm preexisting stereotypes by paying attention to stereotype consistent info and disregarding info that is inconsistent with stereotypes Stereotyping: From Bad To Neutral  Stereotyping was seen as outward indicator of irrational, nonanalytic cognition  Researchers began to move away from inclusion of assessments of morality or correctness of stereotype or stereotype  Allport was ahead of his time in moving away from including evaluative assessments from “goodness” of stereotyping or those who stereotype o Defined stereotype by: a stereotype is an exaggerated belief associated with a category The Social Cognitive Definition  Brigham defined stereotyping as “generalization mad about a group concerning trait attribution, which is considered to be unjustified by an observer” o Problem is the last half – stereotype is any generalization about group whether observer believes it’s justified or not  By definition, generalization about group is bound to be unjustified for some portion of group members  Hamilton and Trolier o Definition of stereotype: cognitive structure that contains perceiver’s knowledge, beliefs and expectations about a human group o Too broad to accurately capture true meaning  Fiske Taylor o Schema: cognitive structure that represents knowledge about concept or type of stimulus, including attributes and relations among those attributes  Broader cognitive structures that contain our knowledge of a stimulus, our expectations for the motives or behavior of stimulus  Stereotypes are broader cognitive structures that contain knowledge of stimulus, expectations for motives or behavior of stimulus and feelings toward stimulus o Much more specific and subsumed within schema  Ashmore and Del Boca o Stereotype: set of beliefs about personal attributes of group of people o Definition is more consistent with essence of past definitions because it restricts meaning to generalization about group of people Cultural and Individual Stereotypes  Cultural stereotype: shared or community wide patterns of beliefs  Individual stereotypes: beliefs held by an individual about characteristics of a group  Ashmore and Del Boca suggest that adjective rating scales tend to assess cultural stereotypes  Any other measure of stereotype content in which respondent’s answers are restricted to stereotype content choices offered by measure tends to provide an inaccurate measure of person’s stereotype of group Is A Stereotype an Attitude?  Attitude: general evaluation of some object. Usually viewed as falling somewhere on a good-bad, or favorable-unfavorable dimension  Researchers traditionally viewed attitudes as comprising three components o Behavioral component o Affective component o Cognitive component  Other 2 components of intergroup attitude, affect and behavior, correspond to prejudice and discrimination respectively  Discrimination: negative behavior directed toward and individual based on membership Positive Vs. Negative Stereotypes  When most people think of stereotypes – think bad characteristics are associated with group of people  Positive stereotypes: simply beliefs that attribute desirable Defining Prejudice  Gardner o Prejudice can be taken literally to indicate prejudgment about something. o Prejudice can suggest an evaluation either positive or negative, toward a stimulus  Evaluation is an attitude Prejudice as Negative Affect  Allport o Defined prejudice as: antipathy based upon faulty and inflexible generalization. May be felt or expressed. May be directed toward a group as a whole, or toward and individual because he is a member of that group  Prejudice is seen as strong negative feeling about someone based on a generalization one has about person’s group  Prejudice is the affective component of intergroup attitude Prejudice as an Attitude  Problem with earlier definitions of prejudice concerns focus on negative affect toward outgroup. o Unnecessarily limits definition of prejudice because prejudice can also refer to positive prejudice in favour of one’s ingroup (ingroup favorititsm)  Prejudice can be based on o Affective (anger) o Cognitive (beliefs linking hostility to outgroup) o Behavioral (avoidant or hostile) o Affective expressions of prejudice  Strangor, Sullivan and Ford o Found that best predictor of negative outgroup prejudice is not negative feelings about outgroup, but lack of positive emotions o Some suggested that stronger, more obvious forms of prejudice are likely to be based on strong negative emotions  Jackson, Hodge, Gerard, Ingram, Ervin & Sheppard o Assessed cognitions, affect and behaviors of 869 white college students toward various minority students o Found that affect and behavior were strongest predictors of group attitudes o Suggest that quality of intergroup interaction is most dependent on “how good you feel, not how well you think of group members”  Eagly and Diekman o Suggests that prejudice should be regarded as “attitude-in-context” o Prejudice isn’t inflexible; depends on match (or lack of) between social role and beliefs of perceiver o Argue that prejudice is mostly likely displayed toward disadvantaged group when group tries to move into roles for which they are believed by majority to be unqualified  Devine o Asserts that notion that prejudice has affective, cognitive and behavioral component is problematic because research shows that 3 components are not always consistent o Found that low prejudice individuals know about stereotypes of outgroups  LaPiere o Found that people’s expressed attitudes didn’t match behavior toward outgroup Prejudice as “Social Emotion”  Turner o Suggests that self categorizations tend to be strongly linked to self identity and when they are salient, any self relevant info in interaction has affective and motivational consequences  Smith and Ellsowrth o Appraisal: set of cognitions that are attached to specific emotion o Emotion, in appraisal theory is triggered by assessment of adaptive significance and self relevance of people and events in one’s environment o Suggests that appraisals invariably involve self, because they have relevance to one’s goals in some fashion o There are 2 key differences in Smith’s conceptualization of prejudice that make it a unique  Too vague to say that prejudice is a positive or negative feeling about another group  Emotional reactions to other groups are specific  Traditional conception of prejudice suggests that if we are prejudiced against another group, then we should react with same negative affect to all members of group every time we encounter them  Not fit with reality  Subtyping: prejudiced individual maintains negative affect toward group but creates separate category for specific members thereby allowing perceiver’s stereotypes to persist in face of what would be stereotype disconfirming case  How we react to give outgroup members depends on o 1. What self category is salient for us at that moment o 2 in what context interaction occurs (competitive, cooperative, etc.) o 3. How person helps or hinders movement toward salient personal or group goals at that time  Currently, pr
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