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Psychology (2,948)
PSY100H1 (1,804)
Chapter 4


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University of Toronto St. George
Ian Spence

CHAPTER 4 – EMOTIONALDEVELOPMENT & TEMPERAMENT Temperament: Patterns of emotional and behavioural reactivity OVERVIEW OF EMOTIONS & EMO-DEVELOPMENT Components of Emotions 1. Feelings (+/-) 2. Physiological Correlates (heart rate, galvanic skin response, brain wave) 3. Cognitions 4. Goals (escape stimuli, approach it, communicate needs) Two Theories of Emotions & Development • Discrete Emotions Theory: Biologically programmed and accompanied by distinct set of physiological cues, seen in early life (evolutionarily based). Eg. Disgust to protect babies from eating tainted food • Functionalist Perspective: Babies don’t show discrete emotions but rather global positive (excited) or negative (distress). Emotions are there to establish, maintain, or change one’s relationship with the environment. Emerge with age. (better explanation in summary) APPEARANCEAND DEVELOPMENT OF DISCRETE EMOTIONS - Adults better at telling what positive emotion a baby is having from facial expressions Sequencing of Discrete Emotions in 1 Year • 2-7 mos: Primary/Basic Emotions (biologically programmed) • Eg. Discovery of control over objects: If prevented, can anger 2-4mos, and saddness 4-6mos Development of Positive Emotion: Happiness • Rudimentary smiles in response to biological state • 6-10 wk (2mos): Social Smiles with caregivers, objects • 3 mos: Smile at real people • 3-6 mos: Big smile, sharing affect with companion • 6-7 mos: Reserve biggest smile for familiars/caregivers Development of Negative Emotions - Anger when cannot control and try to re-establish control (arm and music) - sadden during mother’s still face (Tronick), give up and become more passive over time READ THIS STUDY o Fear 6-7 mos:  One of last primary emotions to emerge, see something as threat  2 main: Stranger anxiety (8-10mos, gradually declines) & SeparationAnxiety (6-8 mos, peaks at 14-18 mos, then gradually declines)  Evolutionary Theorists: Fear counts as natural clue to danger  Cog-Developmental Theorists: Natural outgrowths of perceptual and cognitive development. Eg. Kagan, stranger disrupts schema of caregiver face, and upsets children because they can’t explain this. REFER TO TEXT, UNCLEAR  SUM:Anxiety due to general apprehension of unfamiliar (evolutionary) + inability to explain who a stranger is/what happened to the caregiver (cog) o Combating stranger anxiety 1. Keep familiar companions available 2. Arrange for companions to respond positively to stranger (social reference) 3. Make setting more ‘familiar’ 4. Be a sensitive, unobtrusive stranger 5. Try to look less strange to the child Development of Self-Conscious Emotions - Secondary/Complex Emotions: 2-3 years, also known as self-conscious emotions because involves damage or enhancement of the self. Lewis  won’t emerge until can recognize self in mirror or photograph, and self-evaluative emotions (shame, pride) requires an additional understanding of rules for evaluating self. (BETTER EXPLANATION IN SUMMARY) - Difference between shame & Guilt. Shame: self-focused, Guilt: Concern for others o Parental influence on Self-Conscious Emotions  Pride/shame depends on mother’s reactions to outcomes  Belittling Ashamed (You are bad)  Criticize inappropriate behaviour  Guilty Later Developments in Emotional Expressivity • Shifts from fear of not understanding what strange things are, to fears related to real-life issues (schoolwork, bullying) • Downward trend of mood for young adolescents, but levels off mid- adolescence o Due to biology, but also more hassles within family about responsibility, self-governance o More depressive girls than boys because 1) Girls report more stressful experiences with others, and 2) React more negatively than boys IDENTIFYING & UNDERSTANDING OTHERS’EMOTIONS Early Identification & Interpretation of Emotions (best at 7-10mos) - Can respond to vocal signals at birth o Social Referencing: Using other’s emotional expressions to infer meaning/info on ambigious situations. Start with parents around 7-10 mos. Also look at caregiverAFTER doing an action, to assess accuracy. o Helps infant learn how they SHOULD feel in a situation (learning) Later Developments in Identifying Others’Emotions • Very bad at identifying others emotions before age 3, tend to say ‘happy’for many emotions • Mostly due to low vocabulary • Surprise, disgust, not words used by young children Understanding Causes of emotions o Better at understanding classmates’negative emotions o Other Milestones in Emotional Understanding  4-5 yr olds understand that past events can affect a person’s current feeling. Parental Contributions to Early Emotional Understanding • Parents with elaborative styles of talking of emotions (How do you feel?) rather than non-elaborative (Are you happy?). Elaborative parents’3-5yr olds better at recognizing other’s facial expressions and predicting a puppet’s reactions to events LEARNING TO REGULATE EMOTIONS - Emotional Self-Regulation: Process of adjusting emotions to appropriate intensity levels (to accomplish goals). Includes managing feelings, physiological, cognitions, behaviour (all of it) Early Socialization of Emotional Self-Regulation • Caregivers regulate babies emotions in first few months of life (responding to needs) • More selectively respondent to positive emotions, so babies learn to display more pleasant faces than unpleasant ones. Some cultural differences READ SECTION • 6mos: Can turn away from unpleasant stimuli • 1 yr: Reduce negative arousal by rocking self, chewing objects • 18-24 mos:Active dealing with problems HOW?, controlling objects/people Emerging Cognitive Strategies for Regulating Emotions • 18-24mos: Begin to talk about emotions, helps develop cognitive strategies for emotional self-regulation • Parents tea
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