Textbook Notes (368,795)
Canada (162,165)
Psychology (2,981)
PSY100H1 (1,831)
Chapter 1

PSYB45 Notes: Chapter 1

6 Pages
Unlock Document

Amanda Uliaszek

PSYB45 Textbook Notes  Covert activities: private not open to view Chapter 1: What is Applied Behaviour Analysis?  Traits: broad/stable characteristics, not behaviors, not psychological diagnoses or KEY TERMS outcomes of behavior  Behaviour o Becoming more physically fit  Heredity and experience affect behavioural  Learning  Unconditioned stimulus development  Unconditioned response  Experience affects behavior through learning o Respondent conditioning  Conditioned stimulus  Conditioned response o Operant conditioning  Respondent conditioning o Modeling  Respondent conditioning: potential conditioned  Operant conditioning  Reinforcement stimulus (CS) gains ability to elicit a conditioned  Punishment response (CR) by being associated repeatedly with an unconditioned stimulus (US) that already  Antecedents  Modeling elicits an unconditioned response (UR)  Cognition  UR and CR: same behavior  Operant conditioning: antecedents set occasion  Applied behavior analysis  Behaviour analyst for behavior, which is affected by consequences it produces  Behavioual methods  Reinforcement increases performance of a  Target behaviours  Behavioural deficit behavior  Punishment decreases its performance  Behavioural excess  Behaviourism  Respondent and operant conditioning occur together  Modeling: observing other people’s behavior Review Questions 1. Describe the research by Greenspoon (1955) on  Cognition: covert mental activity o Thinking modifying verbal behavior and explain why its o Reasoning results are important. 2. What do we mean by the term behavior? Give 2  Expectations, beliefs, rules: covert antecedents to behavior examples each of overt and covert behaviours.  Applied behavior analysis: uses principles of 3. Why are traits, diagnoses, and outcomes of behaviour not behaviours? learning (operant and respondent conditioning) to understand and change behavior 4. How is heredity involved in behavioural  Called behavior analysts development?  Aooky behavioural methods to change target 5. Describe the components and process of behaviours respondent conditioning, and give an example  4 defining chracteristics: from your own life. 1. focus on behavior: modify behavioural 6. Define the terms reinforcement and punishment, deficits/excesses and give two examples of each from your own life. 2. consider learning and environment to be main sources by which behaviours can be 7. Define the operant conditioning term antecedent. changed Give 2 examples of antecedents from your life. 8. How was reinforcement used in the case study of 3. strong scientific orientation 4. pragmatic and active approach reinstating speech in a schizophrenic man? 9. Describe the research and findings of Bandura (1965) on the role of consequences on modeling. Part 1: Introducing Applied Behaviour Analysis What does behavior mean? 10.Give two examples each of modeling and cognition affecting your behavior. External and Internal Behaviours 11.Define behavioural methods and cognitive What is not behavior? How behavior develops methods. 12.Define the term applied behavior analysis. How How we acquire and change behavior do publications in that field differ in their Respondent conditioning Operant conditioning coverage from behavior modification, behavior therapy, and self-manangement? Relating Respondent and operant conditioning Modeling Summary Are Cognitive Processes involved? Defining applied behavior analysis  Behaviour: anything people do in response to Related Terms and fields internal/external events  Overt actions: observable by others Characteristics of Applied Behaviour Analysis How behavior analysis developed o Mental retardation Behaviourism: Origin of behavior analysis o Autism Emergence and growth of applied behavior  Basis of behaviours that are common to analysis individuals with condition  Must assess and try to improve child’s specific behaviours Prologue Joel Greenspoon, 1955  Outcomes of behavior: not behaviours  “mm-hmm” when Karen said plural noun o Get higher grades o Lose weight  environmental events can modify specific behaviors substantially  Improving grades:  interest shown in statements: nodding, eye o Spend more time on schoolwork o Concentrating well when doing work contact  Focus toward outcome often fail to identify and deal effectively with behaviours need to change What does behavior mean? How behavior develops Behaviour: anything a person does because of  Baby inherited inborn behavior: reflexes internal/external events o Obvious survival value  describe individual’s specific actions or responses  Feeding  Maintain physiological functioning External and Internal Behaviours  Protection against injury  External or overt o Rooting reflex: turn head toward an 1. Verbal: actions involving language use object that touches cheek 2. Motor: actions involving body movement o Sucking reflex: suck when lips touched  Overt behaviours: main focus of applied behavior analysis with small rounded object  All other behaviors develop after birth  Ads on TV o Heredity o Produce emotions: happiness o Physiological changes: increased HR o Experience  Heredity affects behavioural development  Covert responses 1. Chart course of person’s  Principal reason focus on overt behaviours: o Can be observed and measured directly maturation/physical growth 2. Pride foundation for/tendency toward by another person developing behaviours of certain types  Covert behaviours o can be observed/felt only by person  Earliest years, physical growth is fastest in head and upper trunk of body performing behavior  Speeds up later in lower trunk, arms, legs o must be measured indirectly  Growth and coordination of muscle and nervous  verbal/written reports system have same pattern  special equipment: device to o 3 year olds can pull over sweater but not measure HR tie shoelaces What is not behavior?  Maturation determines when motor actions  Traits  Broad and stable characteristics become possible  Inheritances influences likelihood of: o Nice o Stuttering o Considerate o Honest o Severe anxieties o Autism o Smart o Alcoholism o Creative o Conscientious  Experience: dominant factor in almost all human behavioural development  Convenient and efficient way to communicate o Occurs through learning information  Misleading, inconsistent and imprecise Concept Check 1.1 o Don’t tell us specifically what we need to change to improve a person’s behavior 1. Ellie was a very dependable student: Trait o Can be conscientious in some ways, not 2. Jim laughed at the joke: Overt Behaviour 3. Devon developed strong biceps: Outcome others  More precise in describing behavior to be 4. Dolores dreamed about a spider: Covert 5. Tony was a motivated employee: Trait changed, the more successful we are likely to be in measuring and improving the behavior  Clinical practice: use diagnoses to classify clientHow we acquire and change behavior o Severe depression  Learning: durable change in behavioral potential o Schizophrenia as a result of experience Respondent conditioning o Karen increase plurals “mm-hmm”  Ivan Pavlov, 1927: Russian Nobel-Prize o Reward: praise, money, candy physiologist o Reinforcement occurred, consequence was o Study role of salivation in dog disgestive reinforcing processes  Punishment: consequence following behavior o Noticed dofs began to salivate before food leads to decrease in performance of that was in mouth behavior o Concluded: association between stimulus o Consequence the person finds unpleasant (sight of food) and salivary response was o Not necessary to know why consequence learned has effect on behavior o Formed through association with reflexive o Performance of behavior decrease when (automatic) connection between food in followed by consequence mouth and salivation o Punishment occurred, consequence served o Regularly associated stimulus with as punisher reflexive connection could produce o Events: spankings, reprimands, reduced salivary response privileges  Food in mouth:  Antecedents in Operant Conditioning o Unconditioned stimulus (US): event elicits o Precede and set occasion for action specific response automatically o Switch on light before entering room o Unconditioned response (UR): automatic  A -> B -> C response to stimulus o Antecedents, behavior, consequences  Associating salivation to name of food: o Behaviour produces consequence o Conditioned stimulus (CS): learned o A and B sets the occasion for behavior stimulus, which was neutral before o Whether behavior occurs: strength of link o Conditioned response (CR): elicited by between antecedent and behavior conditioned stimulus as a result of prior  Library/worship place: strong antecedent for learning whispering  UR and CR same behavior: salivation  Operant conditioning can influence any behavior,  Respondent behaviours: elicited involuntarily by whether vocal or motor, overt or covert stimuli Relating Respondent and operant conditioning  Respondent conditioning: learning process which  Respondent and operant conditioning almost a stimulus (eventual CS) gains ability to elicit a always happen together response through repeated association with  Respondent conditioning: stimulus (US) that already produces that o UR: sucking on nipple milk response o US: bottle/breast (potential CS) o Streisand forgot words to songs  Operant conditioning: o Developed stage fright o Sucking: operant motor behavior o Performing on stage became a CS o Milk: consequence reinforced sucking o Began to elicit CR: intense fear  Operant conditioning:  Learn emotions through respondent conditioning o Jim liked radio song, plugged in outlet o Negative emotions: fear of heights, ladder o Stick object in outlet: operant motor cautious behavior o Positive emotions: watch Tina Fey tell o Produced shock: punishment jokes, learn to like  Respondent conditioning: Operant conditioning o Outlet: neutral stimulus will become CS  “mm-hmm” was contingent consequence of o US: Funny noise + shock behavior o UR: Scream in pain  Operant conditioning: learning process which o CR: feel uneasy behavior changes because of its consequences o CS: with outlet + song  Responses acquires are operant behaviours o US: shock  Operant: operate on environment, producing  CS (bottle/breast) –elicits- CR (sucking) –leads consequences to- Reinforcement (milk) [operant conditioning]  B. F. Skinner  US (touch lips) -elicits- UR (sucking) o Established basic techniques and [respondent conditioning] terminology o Distinguished between behavioural CASE STUDY
More Less

Related notes for PSY100H1

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.