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Chapter 7

2012 - PSY100H1: Chapter 7 - Attention & Memory

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University of Toronto St. George
Ashley Waggoner Denton

Chapter7–Attention&Memory How Does Attention Determine Memory? Visual Processing  Parallel Processing – processing information at the same time  Serial Processing – processing one trait, then another Auditory Processing  Cocktail party phenomenon – A pertinent stimulus can draw attention away from a conversation  Shadowing – Participant receives 2 different messages but repeats only one. o The participant hears both but only remembers one o Still processes both messages Selective Attention Can Operate at Multiple Stages of Processing  Filter Theory – people have limited capacity for sensory info, and screen incoming info, only the most important get through o Attention is like a gate o Some stimuli are inherently more important, (pain or emotion)  Change Blindness – Failure to recognize notice large changes in environment o Giving instructions to stranger, we don’t care what they look like, so we don’t pay attention, so we don’t encode his face, so we don’t remember what he looks like What are the Basic Stages of Memory?  3 phases – Encoding, Storage, Retrieval o Encoding – Processing information for storage o Storage – Putting the encoded info away for a length of time o Retrieval – Recalling or remembering the stored info and using it  Modal Memory Model – The three stage memory system that involves sensory, short-term, & long term memory Sensory memory  Sensory Memory – Brief, lasts less than a second, tied to the sensory system o The time it takes to name a few letters causes to the forgetting of the others  Allows us to see the world as continuous Working Memory  Short-term memory – Limited Capacity memory holds awareness for a few seconds o Memory is lost if not saved onto long-term memory o Memory stays if the information is repeated o Capacity improves by chunking (break info into chunks) o 4 components – Episodic Buffer, Central Executive, Phonological Loop, Visuospatial Sketchpad  Central Executive – the control board, monitors the other components  Phonological loop – memory from hearing & repeating words  Visuospatial Sketchpad – Object’s features, and location  Episodic Buffer – Information about self Long Term Memory  Long – Term Memory – Permanent Storage of Information  Serial Position Effect – The position of an item on a list affects the ability to recall it o Primacy effect – better ability to recall things at the beginning of a list  The rehearsal of earlier items transfers them into Long Term Memory o Recency Effect – Better ability to recall things at the end of a list  The recent items are clear and in the Working Memory What Gets into Long Term memory?  Rehearsal – Repeating the same thing over and over = permanent o Overlearning – rehearsing things you already know well over long period of time o Distributed practice – multiple sessions where practice occurs o Massed practice – cramming  Information that is relevant to our environment is transferred to long-term memory o E.g: Remembering quarter is money and recognizing it is more important than being able to recall the features. The ability to recall features becomes important if you often receive fake quarters. (the environment determines whether you remember it or not) What are the Different Long-Term Memory Systems?  Prospective memory – future oriented; remember to do something in the future  Some long-term memories need effort for retrieval , some are just natural (riding bike) Explicit Memories (remembering specific info)  Requires an effort  Declarative Memory – Knowledge that can be declared  Episodic Memory – Memory from personal past  Semantic Memory – Knowledge of the world Implicit Memories (Unconscious memories)  Influences life in subtle ways o Attitudes (you like someone but you don’t know why)  False Fame Effect – Remembering hearing a name causes belief that the name is famous  Repetition priming – improvement in identifying or processing a stimulus experienced before  Procedural Memory – Riding a bike (motor skill) How is Information Organized in Long-Term Memory? Long-term memory stored by meaning  Levels of Processing Model – deeper encoding = more meaning and easier remembrance  Maintenance Rehearsal – s
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