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Chapter 8

2012 - PSY100H1: Chapter 8 - Thinking & Intelligence

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Ashley Waggoner Denton

Thinking&Intelligence How does the mind represent information?  Representation – one thing which corresponds to another or stands for something abstract o Mental representations (analogous representation) – Mental representations that are representative of the characteristics of the object  Picture of violin (the picture shares characteristics with the violin) o Abstract Representations (Symbolic representation) – things which represent the object, but are not related to the characteristics of the object.  A Heart stands for love (Heart is not related to the physical characteristics of love) Organizing representations  Categorization – grouping based on shared characteristics or properties  Concept – a mental representation of an object, event or idea o E.g: chair is a concept; it contains desk chair, lounge chair, arm chair o Can be combined with other concepts for more general label (concept)  E.g: chair and table are both furniture (furniture is another concept)  Defining attribute model – the idea that a concept is defined by a list of features that must be met if an item is in it. o E.g: All bachelors must be single; if he’s not single, he’s not a bachelor. o Doesn’t always work out; not all birds fly, and 3 year olds are not bachelors. o Some characteristics are more important for a given concept  “Warm blooded” is less important than “has wings” for the BIRD concept  Prototype Model – Objects are categorized according to how closely they resemble the prototype (best example) of the category o Allows for flexibility in representation of concepts o Explains why some category members are better fit o Doesn’t explain how a prototype is picked  Exemplar Model – Info stored on members of category used to determine category membership o We categorize a new animal by seeing if it looks like any of the animals we’ve previously encountered Script theory of Schemas  Script theory – We follow scripts on behaviors at particular settings (quiet in movie theatre, talkative with friends over dinner) o Script Schemas work because  Common situations have common attributes (restaurants have food)  People have specific roles within situational context (waiter brings food) How do we make decisions and solve problems?  Reasoning – Using info to determine if conclusion is reasonable o Deductive – Reasoning from general statements to conclude about a specific item (usually involves a syllogism; a logical argument with premises (if … then …))  E.g: If Bob is a man, and men are slobs, then bob is a slob o Inductive – Reasoning from specific example to make a general conclusion  Men in general are slobs because I know 10 men and they are slobs  Decision making – Attempt to select best among several options  Problem Solving – finding a way to get around an obstacle and reach a goal Models of Decision Making  Normative Model – Views humans as optimal decision makers, always pick the best choice  Descriptive Model – A model that factors in human’s tendency to misrepresent probabilities  Expected Utility Theory – Decision making as a computatio
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