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Chapter 9

2012 - PSY100H1: Chapter 9 - Motivation & Emotion

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY100H1
Professor
Ashley Waggoner Denton
Semester
Fall

Description
Motivation&Emotion How does motivation activate, direct and sustain behavior  Motivation – Factors the energize and direct behaviour  Drives – psychological state that encourages a behaviour (hunger encourages eating)  Need – A state of biological or social deficiency; creates arousal  Arousal – A physiological activation (brain activity or sweating …)  Need Hierarchy – biological needs are on the bottom and social needs on top  Habit – when a behavior consistently reduces a drive  Incentives – Some reward or punishment to motivate behaviour; tiger chasing you = run faster  Yerkes-Dodson law – optimal performance occurs at moderate arousal  Pleasure Principle – Humans seek pleasure and avoid pain Types of Motivation  Intrinsic Motivation – Motivation to perform because it is pleasurable o Reading is pleasurable, but satisfies no goals  Extrinsic Motivation – motivation to perform because it will satisfy goals o Studying psychology to get a good grade  Rewarding intrinsic Motives o After being paid, when the payments stopped, the task was no longer pleasurable  Self-determination Theory – People motivated to satisfy needs for competence, and personal control  Self-Perception Theory – People are seldom aware of their specific motives and draw inferences about their motivation from what makes sense o You drink a lot of water, and say “I must have been thirsty” Self-Regulation, Efficacy and Achievement Motivation & Need to belong  Self Regulation – The process by which people alter behavior to attain personal goals o Difficult b/c involves postponing short term reward for long term goals o A limited resource, can only self-regulate for a while before becoming fatigued o Can be built up like a muscle  Self-Efficacy – expectancy that efforts will lead to success  Achievement Motivation – The desire to do well relative to standards of excellence  Delay gratification – delaying short term reward for better reward o Hot cognition – ideas the promote the immediate reward o Cold Cognition – thinking of things that distract, making it easier to delay gratification  Need to Belong Theory – Need for interpersonal attachments is evolutionary o High anxiety people want to be around high anxiety people  Due to the need to see if our reaction is appropriate What determines how we eat  Time and Taste – At noon to 2 pm, we eat; if it tastes good, we eat  Sensory Specific satiety – with only 1 type of food, we get sick of it and stop eating What is eaten? What makes us eat?  Unfamiliar food is less likely to be eaten  hypothalamus controls hunger and satiety o Lateral = hunger o Ventromedial = Full  Glucostatic Theory – Drop in glucose levels means it is time to eat  Lipostatic Theory – set point in body fat, if its low
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