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Chapter 3

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University of Toronto St. George
Michael Inzlicht

Chapter 3 Feeling Vs. Thinking In Activation and Application of Stereotypes Mood  Major benefit of cognitive approach to stereotyping has been demonstration of important influence of expectations about social groups in social judgments and attitudes and bheaivor toward outgroups  During period of cognitive dominance in social psychological investigation of stereotyping continued  Zanna and Rempel o Argued that attitudes toward different attitude objects might be more or less determined more directly the effects of positive vs. negative moods on tendency to stereotype others in social judgments Types of Intergroup Affect  Incidental affect: affect that is elicited by situations unrelated to the intergroup context  Integral affect: affect that is elicited within intergroup context and involves stereotyped outgroup o Can also arise merely from thinking about the outgroup  Chronic outgroup effect: individuals should have rather stable feeling toward outgroup as a whole  Episodic outgroup: people have an affective reaction within an interaction with a specific outgroup member Chronic Outgroup Affect  Attitude object: anything about which one forms an attitude  Because any attitude has incorporated within it both cognitive and affective component o Reasonable to suggest that affect associated with attitude is also enduring feature of evaluation of attitude object o Each time attitude object is perceived or remembered, evaluation will trigger beliefs and other info associated with object as well as enduring feelings associated with attitude object  Affect that one feels toward outgroup as result of one’s enduring attitude toward outgroup can be termed chronic outgroup affect o Distinct from affective reasons to an interaction with a specific member of outgroup  Research shows that although overt form of hostility and prejudce toward African Americans may be less prevalent, prejudice continues to exist in more subtle form  Gaertner and Dovidio o Aversive racism: prejudice towards African Americans that characterizes many white Americans’ attitudes. Truly believe they are egalitarian and regard themselves as nonprejudiced  Possess negative feelings about AA  If possible in subtle way, may express negative attitudes toward AA et feel no affective consequences (guilt, shame, etc)  Preserving self from threatening conflict related negative affect o Suggested that anti-black affect has number of possible sources  Differences in physical appearance  People in ingroup are  1. Assumed to be more similar in beliefs  2. Evaluated more favorably  3. Recipients of more positive behavior by perceiver than are members of outgroups  4. Found to be more attractive by perceiver  Central to low-prejudice individuals’ self concept is their belief that they possess egalitarian values  Negative feelings about AA are often kept out of awareness so that such feelings don’t threaten view of themselves as egalitarian  When situation threatens to make negative feelings salient, low prejudiced individuals try to dissociate themselves from feelings and often act more positively in ways that will convince them and others that they aren’t prejudiced  When people feel negative affect, especially likely to describe racial outgroups using unfavourable characteristics  Particular negative affective state that’s been investigated most is anxiety o Commonly experienced by individuals in an intergroup interaction  Stephan and Stephan o Developed theoretical model of intergroup anxiety o In model, anxiety has disruptive effect on behaviors, thoughts and feelings of outgroup member and perceiver o Anxiety can lead to increased stereotyping by perceiver, avoidance of future intergroup interaction and attempts by perceiver to control others o Amount and conditions of intergroup contact are crucial determinants in whether individual will experience anxiety prior to, or during, interactions o Minimal contact or contact characterized by conflict, individual will tend to feel more anxiety prior to or during intergroup interaction  Wilder o Supports notion that anxiety may be common emotion felt among interactant s in intergroup context o Anxiety may promote stereotyping of outgroup members by an affective consistency process (cuing more negative cognitions) or through increased reliance on expectances (and schemas) regarding outgroup members as result of reduction in cognitive capacity  Dijker o Suggest that important determinant of type of chronic racial affect that perceiver feels in intergroup context is degree to which outgroup member is culturally dissimilar from perceiver o Identified 4 types of emotion that appeared to be strongly related to ethnic attitudes  Positive mood  Anxiety  Irritation  Concern  Some research suggests that intergroup affect is a better determinant of attitudes and behavior toward ethnic groups than are cognitions about ethnic group o Others suggest that cognitions about members of outgroup influence how we feel about outgroup  Appears to be solid empirical basis for notion that intergroup context brings with it an emotional component for interactants and that factors such as proximity and degree of personal contact in intergroup context Episodic Outgroup Affect  Intergroup related affect can also be result of a specific interaction with a specific individual member of outgroup.  Affect can also result from imagined interaction with individual from outgroup  Researchers are interested in what is termed episodic outgroup affect and believed that individual’s enduring attitudes toward outgroup  May be possible to change negative chronic outgroup affect toward outgroup by opposing impact of positive episodic outgroup affect Incidental Affect  Feelings that have no origination associated with outgroup can be characterized as incidental affect  Pervasive theme in extent literature has been affect in one context can influence social judgments in another context  Reasonable to suggest that incidental affect can subsequently influence individual’s proclivity to use stereotypes in social judgment  Stroessner and Mackie o Induced incidental happiness or sadness in participants b having them watch amusing or depressing 5 minute clips of television programs o Results indicated that both incidental sadness and happiness significantly reduced perception of outgroup variability  Esses o Incidental sad affect increased tendency of participants to use negative stereotypes in descriptions of Pakistanis and native Americans o Participants who felt incidental happiness were likely to provide especially favorable stereotypes of own ethnic ingroups o Incidental anxiety seems to facilitate use of stereotypes in making social judgments as well as increase perception of outgroup homogeneity Influence on Positive Affect  Positive affect appears to influence how people categorize others  Positive affect has been shown to reduce extent of systematic processing  People who are happy tend to process info less analytically; rely on heuristic cues, initial judgments, decisional shortcuts and other simplifying strategies and more  Exception is that when happy people are confronted with outgroup individual who radically diverges from outgroup, happy person has no problem giving up reliance on stereotypes in making judgments about target  Research supports contemporary notion in social cognition research that people are more likely to stereotype when they are under increased cognitive constraints due to influences such as distraction or demands brought on by other complex cognitive processing  Research suggests that view may need to be revised  Bodenhausin o If such effort were to have an effect on individual’s well being, ten individual would likely not stereotype Effects of Negative Affect  Pervasive affect that is felt among interactants in an interracial context is often decidedly negative  Important for researchers to understand specific effects that different negative emotions can have on way individuals think about and behave toward members of ethnic outgroups.  Kramer o Found that angry participants tended to make more stereotypic judgments, whereas participants who were sad didn’t differ from neutral affect participants in their use of stereotypes  Incidental anger and anxiety tend to lead to increased use of stereotypes in social judgments o Sadness doesn’t lead to an increased tendency to stereotype others  Subjects in negative mood have been found to do less attributional processing and generate fewer complex hypotheses  Most common negative moods that have been investigated are sadness and anger because they’re most likely to occur naturally in intergroup context  Bodenhausen o Suggests that although it’s likely that other negative emotions may have similar influence on tendency of individuals to stereotype, important that researchers investigate influence on stereotyping of different negative moods  Bauman and Mullen o Found that tolerance for different political views appears to be different for each emotion. o Effect of fear appears to be mediated by personal threat and ingroup enhancement o Influence of anger is mediated by moral outrage and outgroup derogation  Ric o Found that activation of info related to sadness leads to an increased reliance on stereotypes Motivational Vs. Cognitive-Capacity Deficits  Schwarz o Suggested that positive mood conveys message that because all is well with environment, they don’t need to focus on new info  Others suggest that positive moods may activate abundant positively valenced material in memory and material then consumers cognitive  Mackie o Reported several experiments that support idea that negative moods create a diminsed cognitive capacity in individual. o Equally impressive array of experiments support idea that negative moods affect individual’s motivation to process info systematically  Martin, Ward, Achee and Wyer o Presented data suggesting that moods don’t have stable implications. o Suggest that with different interpretations, same mood can have different effects.  Positive moods will tell people to continue their tasks if mood reflects individual’s enjoyment, but positive mood will tell people to stop what they’re doing if mood reflects level of goal of attainment  Negative moods will tell people to stop when mood reflects level of enjoyment, but to continue when it reflects person’s level of foal attainment Cognition Implicit Cognition  Some psychologists propose that cognition occurs outside awareness and that processes can influence behavior and overt cognitive processes come as no surprise to researchers within psych  Philosophers have speculated on the existence of such cognitive processes and birth of American psychology and saw several advocates for proposition that humans have what James termed “sub- conscious” and Freud, “unconscious” cognitive processes Subliminal Messages  Subliminal: perceive something without being consciously aware of perception  Greenwald, Spangenberg, Pratkanis, and Eskenazi o Examined effectiveness of subliminal self esteem and memory enhancement audiotapes o Participants who believe they had self esteem tapes truly believed that their self esteem increased o Those who thought had memory enhancement tapes believed their memories improved o Second testing showed no difference o Concluded that complex subliminal messages can’t be detected below level of awareness Implicit Memory  Warrington and Weiskrantz o Showed that performance of amnesics on implicit tests of memory is often virtually identical to that of controls o On explicit tests of memory (free recall or recognition) amnesics consistently showed significantly inferior performance relative to controls o Implicit measures of retention reflect unconscious learning because amnesic patient is almost always unaware that they know material when tested with explicit measures o Subject performs similarly to normals on tests that implicitly tap memory o Amnesic will show normal retention if test of memory is an implicit one  Graf and Schacter o Implicit memory: unintentional, nonconscious form of memory. Stimuli can be perceived without awareness and info can later influence thoughts, behaviors and feelings o Explicit memory: conscious recollection of memories. All episodic and general info that is in long term memory and that is available for conscious recollection o Type of measure that one uses (implicit vs. explicit) will determine whether one will gain access to an implicit memory o Revealed that normal subjects show a dissociation between explicit and implicit memory on implicit and explicit tasks Implicit stereotyping  Abelson o Noted various dichotomies may belie theoretical nclinations of researcher more than they reflect distinct subsystems within cognitive activity o Characterization avoids any accompanying theoretical interpretations and ties the study of unconscious cognition to the work on implicit vs. explicit memory processes  Implicit stereotyping: introspectively unidentified traces of past experience that influence perceptions of outgroup members. Exposure to prior stereotype relevant info below level of awareness can later influence one’s attitudes, feelings and behavior toward relevant outgroup  Greenwald & Banaji o “implicit stereotypes are introspectively unidentified traces of past experience that mediate attributions of qualities to members of a social category” o Made 2 important points about implicit cognition (applies to stereotyping as well)  Effect of implicit cognition is demonstrated only when past experience affects some future behavior thought without awareness of subject that this experience has influenced their thoughts or behaviors  Measure of
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