Textbook Notes (367,824)
Canada (161,435)
Psychology (2,971)
PSY100H1 (1,821)
Joordens (19)
Chapter 10

psychology: chapter 10

11 Pages
Unlock Document


Chapter 10: Language (Definitions) 2/15/2012 7:15:00 PM PSYCHOLINGUISTICS – a branch of psychology devoted to the study of verbal behaviour PHONEME – the minimum unit of sound that conveys meaning in a particular language, such as /p/ VOICE-ONSET TIME – the delay between the initial sound of a consonant and the onset of vibration of the vocal cords  the distinction between voiced and unvoiced consonants permits us to distinguish between /p/ and /b/ etc. MORPHEME – the smallest unit of meaning in language  Phonemes are combined to form morphemes SYNTACTICAL RULE – a grammatical rule of a particular language for combining words to form phrases, clauses and sentences FUNCTION WORD – a preposition, article, or other word that conveys little of the meaning of a sentence but is important in specifying grammatical structure  ex. A, the, to, some, but, and CONTENT WORD – a noun, verb, adjective, or adverb that conveys meaning  Ex. Apple, rug, caught, heavy AFFIX – a sound or group of letters that is added to the beginning of a word (prefix) or to its end (suffix)  Ex. Drop/dropped, sing/singing  Epstein presented people with word strings  A vap koob desak the citar molent um glox nerf  A vapy koob desaked the citar molently um glox nerfs  The addition of the affixes made the words seem more like a sentence and they thus became easier to categorize and recall SEMANTICS – the meanings and the study of the meanings represented by words PROSODY – the use of changes in intonation and emphasis to convey meaning in speech besides that specified by the particular words; an important means of communication of emotion  the use of stress, rhythm, and changes in pitch to accommodate speech  since Jay always jogs 5 miles seems like a short distance to him  since Jay always jogs 5 miles this seems like a short distance to him  the 1 sentence probably seemed harder to comprehend; because we lack the prosody cues conveyed by normal speech DEEP STRUCTURE – the essential meaning of a sentence, without regard to the grammatical features (surface structure) of the sentence that are needed to express it in words  the deep structure represents the kernel of what a person intended to say  ex. Rosa always dated shrinks SURFACE STRUCTURE – the grammatical features of a sentence  Slip of the tongue  Ex. Rosa always date shranks SCRIPT – the characteristics (events, rules, and so on) that are typical of a particular situation; assists the comprehension of verbal discourse BROCA’S APHASIA – severe difficulty in articulating words, especially function words, caused by damage that includes Broca’s area, a region of the frontal cortex on the left side of the brain  a language disorder characterized by slow, laborious, non fluent speech  ex. Ah… Monday…ah Dad and Paul… and Dad… hospital AGGRAMATISM – a language disturbance  Loss of the ability to produce or comprehend speech that employs complex syntactical rules  Rarely use function words  Rarely use grammatical markers such as –ed or auxiliaries such as have (as I have gone)  Ex. The boy is catch… the boy is hitch… the boy is hit the ball WERNICKE’S AREA – a region of the auditory association cortex located in the upper part of the left temporal lobe; involved in the recognition of spoken words WERNICKE’S APHASIA – a disorder caused by damage to the left temporal and parietal cortex, including WERNICKE’S AREA - Symptoms: poor speech comprehension and production of meaningless speech  Unlike Broca’s aphasia, the speech associated with Wernicke’s aphasia if fluent and unlaboured  Ex. Never, now mista oyge I wanna tell you this happened when happened when he rent PURE WORD DEAFNESS – the ability to hear, speak, write, without being able to comprehend the meaning of speech; caused by bilateral temporal lobe damage  people with pure word deafness can hear what a person is saying, they just cant understand what the person is saying ISOLATION APHASIA – a language disturbance that includes an inability to comprehend speech or to produce meaningful speech  accompanied by the ability to repeat speech and to learn new sequences of words  damage to the region surrounding Wernicke’s area FIXATION – a brief interval between saccadic eye movements during which the eye does not move  Visual information is gathered at this time PHONETIC READING – reading by decoding the phonetic significance of letter strings  “sound reading”  ex. praglet WHOLE WORD READING – reading by recognizing a word as a whole  “sight reading”  ex. Table, grass SURFACE DYSLEXIA – a reading disorder in which people can read words phonetically but have difficulty reading irregularly spelled words by the whole word method  people with surface dyslexia have an easy time reading regularly spelt words such as hand, table, chin  but difficulty in reading irregularly spelled words such as sew, pint, yacht PHONOLOGICAL DYSLEXIA – a reading disorder in which people can read familiar words but have difficulty reading familiar words or pronounceable non-words because they cannot sound out words  opposite of surface dyslexia, can read by whole word method but cannot sound out words DIRECT DYSLEXIA – a language disorder caused by brain damage in which people can read words aloud without understanding them SEMANTIC PRIMING – if a person reads a particular word, he or she can more easily read a second word that is related in meaning to the first PROTOWORD – a unique string of phonemes that an infant invents and uses as a word  ex. Na! Na! CHILD-DIRECTED SPEECH – the speech of an adult directed toward a child  Differs in important features from adult-directed speech and tends to facilitate learning of language by children  Ex. Short, simple formed, repetitive sentences  Adult speech to children is characterized by clear pronunciation, exaggerated intonations INFLECTION – a change in the form of a word to denote a grammatical feature such as a tense or Number OVERGENERALIZATION ERRORS – errors in language that occur when learners produce incorrect words or statements based on other rules of language  ex. I runned, I falled down, she hitted me OVEREXTENSIONS – the use of a word to denote a larger class of items than is appropriate  Ex. referring to the moon as a ball (the child does not know the meaning of a ball) UNDEREXTENSIONS – the use of a word to denote a smaller class of items than is appropriate  Ex. Referring only to one particular animal as a dog Chapter 11: Intelligence and Thinking (Definitions) INTELLIGENCE – the general term used to refer to a person’s ability to learn and remember information,  to recognize concepts and their relations  to apply the info. to their own behaviour in an adaptive way DIFFERENTIAL APPROACH – favours the development of tests that identify and measure individual differences in people’s abilities to solve problems DEVELOPMENTAL APPROACH - an approach to the study of intelligence that involves based on the way children learn to perceive, manipulate and think about the world INFORMATION PROCESSING APPROACH – an approach to the study of intelligence that focuses on the types of skills people use to think and to solve problems g FACTOR – the general factor  according to Spearman, a factor of intelligence that is common to all intellectual tasks  comprised of 3 qualitative principles of cognition: 1. apprehension of experience 2. education of relations 3. education of correlates s FACTOR – factor specific to a particular test  according to Spearman, a factor of intelligence that is specific to a particular task FACTOR ANALYSIS – a statistical procedure that identifies common factors among groups of tests SUCCESSFUL INTELLIGENCE – According to Sternberg, the ability to effectively analyze and manage personal strengths and weaknesses ANALYTICAL INTELLIGENCE – according to Sternberg, the mental mechanisms people use to plan and execute tasks  includes: 1. Metacomponents – processes by which people decide the nature of an intellectual problem, select a strategy for solving it, and allocate their resources 2. Performance components – the processes actually used to perform the task 3. Knowledge acquisition components – those that a person uses to gain new knowledge by sifting out relevant info. and integrating it with what he/she already knows CREATIVE INTELLIGENCE – according to Sternberg, the ability to deal effectively with novel situations and to solve problems automatically that have been encountered previously PRACTICAL INTELLIGENCE – according to Sternberg, intelligence that reflects the behaviours that were subject to natural selection: adaptation finding one’s own niche in the environment; and shaping – changing the environment SYLLOGISM – a logical construction that contains a: a. Major premise – assumed to be true  ex. All birds have feathers b. Minor premise – assumed to be true  ex. A Canada goose is a bird c. Conclusion – evaluated by deductive reasoning  ex. A Canada goose has feathers BINET-SIMON SCALE – an intelligence test developed by Binet and Simon; the precursors of the Stanford-Binet Scale NORMS – data concerning comparison groups that permit the score of an individual to be assessed relative to his or her peers MENTAL AGE – a measure of a person’s intellectual development  the level of intellectual development that could be expected for an average child of a particular age STANFORD-BINET SCALE – an intelligence test that consists of various tasks grouped according  Provides the standard measure of the intelligence quotient (IQ) INTELLIGENCE QUOTIENT (IQ) – a simplified single measure of general intelligence RATIO IQ – a formula for computing the intelligence quotient IQ= MA ´100 CA DEVIATION IQ – a procedure for computing the IQ; compares a child’s score with those received by other children of the same chronological age WECHSLER ADULT INTELLIGENCE SCALE (WAIS) – an intelligence test for adults  Contains subtests divided into the categories of verbal and performance WECHSLER INTELLIGENCE SCALE FOR CHILDREN (WISC) – an intelligence test for children  Similar in form to the Wechsler adult scale CRITERION – an independent measure of a variable being assessed MENTAL RETARDATION – mental development that is substantially below normal  often caused by some form of brain damage or abnormal brain development HERITABILITY – the degree to which the variability of a particular trait in a particular population of organisms is a result of genetic differences among these organisms  If there’s no difference between the individuals there is no heritability  It measures the relative contributions of differences in genes and environmental factors to the overall observed variability of the trait in a particular population FETAL ALCOHOL SYNDROME – a disorder that adversely affects an offspring’s brain development and is caused by the mother’s alcohol intake during pregnancy CONCEPT - a category of objects or situations that share some common attributes  Ex. “carefree time of life” describes a state of being FORMAL CONCEPT – a category of objects or situations defined by listing their common essential characteristics, as dictionaries often do  Ex. Dogs have 4 legs, a tail, fur and can bark NATURAL CONCEPT – a category of objects or situations based on people’s perceptions and interactions with things in the world, based on exemplars  ex. Some things have wings, beaks, feathers and they build nests, fly and lay eggs EXEMPLAR – a memory of particular examples of objects or situations that are used as the basis of classifying objects or situations into concepts BASIC-LEVEL CONCEPT – a concept that makes important distinctions between different categories, but does not waste time on those that don’t matter  Ex. Chair and apple SUPERORDINATE CONCEPTS – a concept that refers to collections of basic-level concepts  Ex. Furniture, fruit  The use of superordinate concepts loses important information SUBORDINATE CONCEPT – a concept that refers to types of items within a basic-level category  Ex. Lawn chair, granny smith apple  The use of subordinate concepts wastes time and effort on meaningless distinctions DEDUCTIVE REASONING – inferring specific instances from general principles or rules  Ex. John is taller than fill, Sue is shorter then Phil, therefore John is taller than Sue MENTAL MODEL – a mental construction based on physical reality that is used to solve problems of logical deduction INDUCTIVE REASONING – Inferring general principles or rules from specific facts ALGORITHM – a procedure that consists of a series of steps that will solve a specific type of pr
More Less

Related notes for PSY100H1

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.