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Chapter 10

psychology: chapter 10

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY100H1
Professor
Joordens
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 10: Language (Definitions) 2/15/2012 7:15:00 PM PSYCHOLINGUISTICS – a branch of psychology devoted to the study of verbal behaviour PHONEME – the minimum unit of sound that conveys meaning in a particular language, such as /p/ VOICE-ONSET TIME – the delay between the initial sound of a consonant and the onset of vibration of the vocal cords  the distinction between voiced and unvoiced consonants permits us to distinguish between /p/ and /b/ etc. MORPHEME – the smallest unit of meaning in language  Phonemes are combined to form morphemes SYNTACTICAL RULE – a grammatical rule of a particular language for combining words to form phrases, clauses and sentences FUNCTION WORD – a preposition, article, or other word that conveys little of the meaning of a sentence but is important in specifying grammatical structure  ex. A, the, to, some, but, and CONTENT WORD – a noun, verb, adjective, or adverb that conveys meaning  Ex. Apple, rug, caught, heavy AFFIX – a sound or group of letters that is added to the beginning of a word (prefix) or to its end (suffix)  Ex. Drop/dropped, sing/singing  Epstein presented people with word strings  A vap koob desak the citar molent um glox nerf  A vapy koob desaked the citar molently um glox nerfs  The addition of the affixes made the words seem more like a sentence and they thus became easier to categorize and recall SEMANTICS – the meanings and the study of the meanings represented by words PROSODY – the use of changes in intonation and emphasis to convey meaning in speech besides that specified by the particular words; an important means of communication of emotion  the use of stress, rhythm, and changes in pitch to accommodate speech  since Jay always jogs 5 miles seems like a short distance to him  since Jay always jogs 5 miles this seems like a short distance to him  the 1 sentence probably seemed harder to comprehend; because we lack the prosody cues conveyed by normal speech DEEP STRUCTURE – the essential meaning of a sentence, without regard to the grammatical features (surface structure) of the sentence that are needed to express it in words  the deep structure represents the kernel of what a person intended to say  ex. Rosa always dated shrinks SURFACE STRUCTURE – the grammatical features of a sentence  Slip of the tongue  Ex. Rosa always date shranks SCRIPT – the characteristics (events, rules, and so on) that are typical of a particular situation; assists the comprehension of verbal discourse BROCA’S APHASIA – severe difficulty in articulating words, especially function words, caused by damage that includes Broca’s area, a region of the frontal cortex on the left side of the brain  a language disorder characterized by slow, laborious, non fluent speech  ex. Ah… Monday…ah Dad and Paul… and Dad… hospital AGGRAMATISM – a language disturbance  Loss of the ability to produce or comprehend speech that employs complex syntactical rules  Rarely use function words  Rarely use grammatical markers such as –ed or auxiliaries such as have (as I have gone)  Ex. The boy is catch… the boy is hitch… the boy is hit the ball WERNICKE’S AREA – a region of the auditory association cortex located in the upper part of the left temporal lobe; involved in the recognition of spoken words WERNICKE’S APHASIA – a disorder caused by damage to the left temporal and parietal cortex, including WERNICKE’S AREA - Symptoms: poor speech comprehension and production of meaningless speech  Unlike Broca’s aphasia, the speech associated with Wernicke’s aphasia if fluent and unlaboured  Ex. Never, now mista oyge I wanna tell you this happened when happened when he rent PURE WORD DEAFNESS – the ability to hear, speak, write, without being able to comprehend the meaning of speech; caused by bilateral temporal lobe damage  people with pure word deafness can hear what a person is saying, they just cant understand what the person is saying ISOLATION APHASIA – a language disturbance that includes an inability to comprehend speech or to produce meaningful speech  accompanied by the ability to repeat speech and to learn new sequences of words  damage to the region surrounding Wernicke’s area FIXATION – a brief interval between saccadic eye movements during which the eye does not move  Visual information is gathered at this time PHONETIC READING – reading by decoding the phonetic significance of letter strings  “sound reading”  ex. praglet WHOLE WORD READING – reading by recognizing a word as a whole  “sight reading”  ex. Table, grass SURFACE DYSLEXIA – a reading disorder in which people can read words phonetically but have difficulty reading irregularly spelled words by the whole word method  people with surface dyslexia have an easy time reading regularly spelt words such as hand, table, chin  but difficulty in reading irregularly spelled words such as sew, pint, yacht PHONOLOGICAL DYSLEXIA – a reading disorder in which people can read familiar words but have difficulty reading familiar words or pronounceable non-words because they cannot sound out words  opposite of surface dyslexia, can read by whole word method but cannot sound out words DIRECT DYSLEXIA – a language disorder caused by brain damage in which people can read words aloud without understanding them SEMANTIC PRIMING – if a person reads a particular word, he or she can more easily read a second word that is related in meaning to the first PROTOWORD – a unique string of phonemes that an infant invents and uses as a word  ex. Na! Na! CHILD-DIRECTED SPEECH – the speech of an adult directed toward a child  Differs in important features from adult-directed speech and tends to facilitate learning of language by children  Ex. Short, simple formed, repetitive sentences  Adult speech to children is characterized by clear pronunciation, exaggerated intonations INFLECTION – a change in the form of a word to denote a grammatical feature such as a tense or Number OVERGENERALIZATION ERRORS – errors in language that occur when learners produce incorrect words or statements based on other rules of language  ex. I runned, I falled down, she hitted me OVEREXTENSIONS – the use of a word to denote a larger class of items than is appropriate  Ex. referring to the moon as a ball (the child does not know the meaning of a ball) UNDEREXTENSIONS – the use of a word to denote a smaller class of items than is appropriate  Ex. Referring only to one particular animal as a dog Chapter 11: Intelligence and Thinking (Definitions) INTELLIGENCE – the general term used to refer to a person’s ability to learn and remember information,  to recognize concepts and their relations  to apply the info. to their own behaviour in an adaptive way DIFFERENTIAL APPROACH – favours the development of tests that identify and measure individual differences in people’s abilities to solve problems DEVELOPMENTAL APPROACH - an approach to the study of intelligence that involves based on the way children learn to perceive, manipulate and think about the world INFORMATION PROCESSING APPROACH – an approach to the study of intelligence that focuses on the types of skills people use to think and to solve problems g FACTOR – the general factor  according to Spearman, a factor of intelligence that is common to all intellectual tasks  comprised of 3 qualitative principles of cognition: 1. apprehension of experience 2. education of relations 3. education of correlates s FACTOR – factor specific to a particular test  according to Spearman, a factor of intelligence that is specific to a particular task FACTOR ANALYSIS – a statistical procedure that identifies common factors among groups of tests SUCCESSFUL INTELLIGENCE – According to Sternberg, the ability to effectively analyze and manage personal strengths and weaknesses ANALYTICAL INTELLIGENCE – according to Sternberg, the mental mechanisms people use to plan and execute tasks  includes: 1. Metacomponents – processes by which people decide the nature of an intellectual problem, select a strategy for solving it, and allocate their resources 2. Performance components – the processes actually used to perform the task 3. Knowledge acquisition components – those that a person uses to gain new knowledge by sifting out relevant info. and integrating it with what he/she already knows CREATIVE INTELLIGENCE – according to Sternberg, the ability to deal effectively with novel situations and to solve problems automatically that have been encountered previously PRACTICAL INTELLIGENCE – according to Sternberg, intelligence that reflects the behaviours that were subject to natural selection: adaptation finding one’s own niche in the environment; and shaping – changing the environment SYLLOGISM – a logical construction that contains a: a. Major premise – assumed to be true  ex. All birds have feathers b. Minor premise – assumed to be true  ex. A Canada goose is a bird c. Conclusion – evaluated by deductive reasoning  ex. A Canada goose has feathers BINET-SIMON SCALE – an intelligence test developed by Binet and Simon; the precursors of the Stanford-Binet Scale NORMS – data concerning comparison groups that permit the score of an individual to be assessed relative to his or her peers MENTAL AGE – a measure of a person’s intellectual development  the level of intellectual development that could be expected for an average child of a particular age STANFORD-BINET SCALE – an intelligence test that consists of various tasks grouped according  Provides the standard measure of the intelligence quotient (IQ) INTELLIGENCE QUOTIENT (IQ) – a simplified single measure of general intelligence RATIO IQ – a formula for computing the intelligence quotient IQ= MA ´100 CA DEVIATION IQ – a procedure for computing the IQ; compares a child’s score with those received by other children of the same chronological age WECHSLER ADULT INTELLIGENCE SCALE (WAIS) – an intelligence test for adults  Contains subtests divided into the categories of verbal and performance WECHSLER INTELLIGENCE SCALE FOR CHILDREN (WISC) – an intelligence test for children  Similar in form to the Wechsler adult scale CRITERION – an independent measure of a variable being assessed MENTAL RETARDATION – mental development that is substantially below normal  often caused by some form of brain damage or abnormal brain development HERITABILITY – the degree to which the variability of a particular trait in a particular population of organisms is a result of genetic differences among these organisms  If there’s no difference between the individuals there is no heritability  It measures the relative contributions of differences in genes and environmental factors to the overall observed variability of the trait in a particular population FETAL ALCOHOL SYNDROME – a disorder that adversely affects an offspring’s brain development and is caused by the mother’s alcohol intake during pregnancy CONCEPT - a category of objects or situations that share some common attributes  Ex. “carefree time of life” describes a state of being FORMAL CONCEPT – a category of objects or situations defined by listing their common essential characteristics, as dictionaries often do  Ex. Dogs have 4 legs, a tail, fur and can bark NATURAL CONCEPT – a category of objects or situations based on people’s perceptions and interactions with things in the world, based on exemplars  ex. Some things have wings, beaks, feathers and they build nests, fly and lay eggs EXEMPLAR – a memory of particular examples of objects or situations that are used as the basis of classifying objects or situations into concepts BASIC-LEVEL CONCEPT – a concept that makes important distinctions between different categories, but does not waste time on those that don’t matter  Ex. Chair and apple SUPERORDINATE CONCEPTS – a concept that refers to collections of basic-level concepts  Ex. Furniture, fruit  The use of superordinate concepts loses important information SUBORDINATE CONCEPT – a concept that refers to types of items within a basic-level category  Ex. Lawn chair, granny smith apple  The use of subordinate concepts wastes time and effort on meaningless distinctions DEDUCTIVE REASONING – inferring specific instances from general principles or rules  Ex. John is taller than fill, Sue is shorter then Phil, therefore John is taller than Sue MENTAL MODEL – a mental construction based on physical reality that is used to solve problems of logical deduction INDUCTIVE REASONING – Inferring general principles or rules from specific facts ALGORITHM – a procedure that consists of a series of steps that will solve a specific type of pr
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