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Chapter 3

Chapter 3 notes.docx

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Elizabeth Page- Gould

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Chapter 3: Social Cognition- How We Think about the Social World Social cognition: how people think about themselves and the social world; more specifically how people select, interpret, remember, and use social information to make judgements and decisions Automatic thinking: one kind of thought is quick, nonconcsious, and automatic (effortlessly classifying an object as a chair) controlled thinking: more effortful and deliberate (where to go to university or college, what to choose as your major, and whether to break up with your boyfriend/girlfriend) ON AUTOMATIC PILOT: LOW-EFFORT THINKING When schemas are applied to members of a social group such as gender or race, they are commonly referred to as stereotypes Schemas are particularly important when we encounter information that can be interpreted in a number of ways, because they help reduce uncertainty People are more likely to remember information that is consistent with their schemas Accessibility: extent to which schemas and concepts are at the forefront of people’s minds and are therefore likely to be used when making judgments about the social world Schemas can be accessible for 3 reasons: Chronologically accessible due to past experience-schemas are constantly active and ready to use to interpret uncertain situation (if there is a history of alcoholism in your family, traits describing an alcoholic is accessible to you) Related to a current goal- (studying for a test about the different types of mental disorders, this concept might be temporarily accessible) Recent experiences- particular schema or trait is not always accessible but happens to be primed by something people have been thinking about or doing before encountering an event (reading a magazine on the bus about mental patients, could think that the strange man on the bus is mental) Priming: recent experiences increase the accessibility of a schema, trait, or concept Perseverance effect: finding that people’s beliefs about themselves and the social world persist even after the evidence supporting these beliefs is discredited (people who get “successful” feedback think they would do better the next time, “failure” feedback thought they wouldn’t do better) Self-fulfilling prophecy: a) Have an expectation about what another person is like b) Which influences how they act toward that person c) Which causes that person to behave consistently with the original behaviour Teachers were found to treat “bloomers” (students expected to perform better academically) differently in 4 different ways:  Create a warmer emotional climate for them (giving more personal attention, encouragement, and support)  Give them more material to learn and material that is more difficult  They give bloomers better feedback on their work  They give them more opportunities to respond in c
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