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Chapter 4

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University of Toronto St. George
Elizabeth Page- Gould

Chapter 4: Social perception- How We Come to Understand Other People pg96-122 NONVERBAL BEHAVIOUR Display rules: culturally determined rules about which nonverbal behaviours are appropriate to display In Japan, traditional rules say that women should not exhibit a wide uninhibited smile. They generally hide their wide smiles behind their hands, while Western women are encouraged to smile broadly Emblems: nonverbal gestures that have well-understood definitions within a given culture; they usually have direct verbal translations such as the ``okay`` sign. It is not universal Many studies show that women are better at both decoding and encoding nonverbal cues. Men are better at detecting lies (women are polite and tend to turn this off in face of deception) Social role theory: sex differences in social behaviour derive from society`s division of labour between the sexes; this division leads to differences in gender-role expectations and sex-typed skills IMPLICIT PERONALITY THEORIES: FILLING IN THE BLANKS Implicit personality theory: type of schema people use to group various kinds of personality traits together (if someone is kind, people believe he or she is generous as well) CAUSAL ATTRIBUTION: ANSWERING THE ``WHY`` QUESTION Attribution theory: way in which people explain the causes of their own and other people`s behaviour Internal attribution: (people) inference that a person is behaving in a certain way because of something about him or her, such as his or her personality, character, or attitude (poor parenting skills) External attribution: (situation) inference that person is behaving a certain way because something about the situation he or she is in We notice & think about more than 1 piece of info when we form an impression of another person Covariation model: states that you will examine multiple instances of behaviour, occurring at different times and in different situation (friend refuses to lend her car. Has she refused to lend her car in the past? Does she lend it to other people? Does she normally lend things to you?) 3 types of information we examine for covariation: Consensus information- how other people behave toward the same stimulus Distinc
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