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Chapter 3

PSYB32 Chapter 3 Textbook Notes.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Konstantine Zakzanis

CHAPTER 3 – CLASSIFICATION AND DIAGNOSIS (DSM) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM IV TR): is published by the American Psychiatric Association. – used throughout Canada and the USA Side Note: Anxiety in social situations – become really tense (both symptoms of schizotypal and avoidant personality disorder) While in schizotypal – anxiety does not decrease when they get to know the people while it does for avoidant personality disorders. DSM defines Mental Disorder as “A clinically significant behaviour/psychological syndrome that occurs in an individual and that is associated with present distress (painful symptoms) or disability or with significantly increased risk of suffering death, pain, or an important loss of freedom” Multiaxial Classification: each individual is rated on five separate axes. 1. Axis I: all diagnostic categories except personality disorders and mental retardation 2. Axis II: personality disorders and mental retardation 3. Axis III: General medical conditions 4. Axis IV: Psychosocial and environmental problems 5. Axis V: Current level of functioning  Axis I and II compose the classification of abnormal behaviour – the are separated to ensure that the presence of long-term disturbances is not overlooked  The presence of an Axis I and II disorder generally means that the person’s problem will be difficult to treat  Axis IV: occupational problems, economical problems, difficult with family members Diagnostic Categories Disorders usually first diagnosed in infancy, childhood or adolescence  Separation anxiety disorder: anxiety about being away from home/parents  Conduct disorder: repeatedly violate social norms and rules  Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: difficulty sustaining attention and unable to control their activity when the situation calls for it  Mental Retardation: subnormal intellectual functioning and deficits in adaptive functioning  Persuasive Developmental Disorder: autistic – problem communicating and relating to others  Learning Disorders: delays in the acquisition in speech, reading, arithmetic, and writing skills Substance-Related Disorders  Is diagnosed when the ingestion of some substances (alcohol, cocaine) has changed behaviour enough to impair social or occupational functioning Schizophrenia  Shift from one subject to another therefore difficult to understand  Experience delusions – believing thoughts that are not their own have been placed in their heads  Hallucinations – commonly hearing voices that come from outside themselves Mood disorders  Major depressive Disorder: deeply sad and discouraged. Likely to lose weight and energy and have suicidal thoughts  Mania: exceedingly euphoric, more active than usual, possessed of unrealistically high self esteem  Bipolar Disorder: is diagnosed if the person experiences episodes of mania or of both mania and depression Anxiety Disorder  Phobia: fear an object so they must avoid it, even though they know their fears are unreasonable and disrupts their lives.  Panic Disorder: sudden and brief attacks – so upsetting that they will tremble and shake, feel dizzy, have trouble breathing  Agoraphobia: fearful of leaving familiar surroundings  Generalized Anxiety Disorder: fear persistently and uncontrollably – worry constantly, easily tired  Obsessive-compulsive Disorder: Obsession is a recurrent thought, idea that uncontrollably dominates a person’s consciousness. Compulsion is an urge to perform a stereotyped act.  Post Traumatic stress Disorder: experiencing anxiety and emotional numbness. Will have painful intrusive recollections by day and bad dreams at night  Acute Stress Disorder: similar to post traumatic stress disorder but doesn’t last as long Somatoform Disorders  Somatization Disorder: long history of physical complaints for which they have taken medication  Conversion Disorder: loss of motor or sensory function (paralysis, anaesthesia or blindness  Pain Disorder: suffer from severe and prolonged pain  Hypochondriasis: misinterpretation of minor phys
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