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Chapter 5

PSYB32 Chapter 5 Textbook Notes.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Konstantine Zakzanis

CHAPTER 5 – Research Methods in the study of abnormal behaviour A Theory is a set of propositions meant to explain a class of phenomena. Primary goal of science is to advance theories to account for data, often by proposing cause-effect relationships In formulating a theory, scientist must often make use of theoretical concepts: unobservable states that are inferred from observable data J. Brett Barkley, clinicians prepare a Case Study by collecting historical and biographical information about a single individual, often including experiences during therapy sessions  A Comprehensive case study would include family history, background, medical history, educational background, jobs held, marital history, details concerning development, personality, life course, and current situation A case study may not reveal principles characteristic of people in general and is unable to provide satisfactory evidence concerning cause-effect relationships (chapter3) Epidemiology research focuses on determining three features of a disorder: 1. Prevalence: proportion of a population that has the disorder at a given point/period of time 2. Incidence: the number of new cases of the disorder that occur in the same period/year 3. Risk Factors: Conditions that increase the likelihood of developing the disorder Correlational Method: establishes whether there is a relationship between/among 2 or more variables. The variables being studied are measured as they exist in nature Correlation coefficient (r): strength of the relationship between the two sets of variables (-1.00 to +1.00) The higher the value of r, the stronger the relationship between the two variables therefore -1 and +1 are the strongest while 0.00 indicates that they are unrelated Statistical Significance: refers to the likelihood that the results of an investigation are due to chance (5/100 or less is considered as statistical significance.) Statistical Significance Correlation: one that is not likel
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