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Chapter 4

PSYB32 Chapter 4 Textbook Notes.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Konstantine Zakzanis

PSYB32 – Abnormal Psychology Chapter 4 – Clinical Assessment Procedures The higher the correlation, the better the reliability. Unreliable measures will not have good validity. Reliability: the consistency of measurement  Inter-rater Reliability: degree to which two independent observers agree  Test-retest Reliability: people being observed twice or taking the same test twice. Score in generally the same way  Alternate-form reliability: given two forms of a test so people don’t remember answers. Still based on the consistent results  Internal Consistency Reliability: assesses whether the items on a test are related to one another Validity: generally related to whether a measure fulfills its intended purpose  Content Validity: whether a measure adequately samples the domain of interest (appropriate qu?)  Criterion Validity: whether a measure is associated in an expected way with some other measure (test is actually related to depression) - can be assessed by evaluating the measure’s ability to predict some other variable that is measured in the future (aka Predictive Validity)  Construct Validity: interpret a test as a measure of some characteristic that is not simply defined. Is evaluated by looking at a wide variety of data from multiple sources Structured Clinical Interview Diagnosis (SCID) is one in which questions are set out in a prescribed fashion for the interviewer. SCID is a branching interview, client’s response to one question determines the next question Inter-rater reliability is generally good for structured interviews Psychological Tests: are standardized procedures designed to measure a person’s performance on a particular task or to assess their personality, or thought, feelings, and behaviour. 1. Self-report Personality Inventories: person asked to complete a questionnaire whether statements assessing habitual tendencies apply to them (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) is the best-known and most frequently used) Designed to detect a number of psychological problems- widely used to screen large groups of people for whom clinical interviews are not feasible 2. Projective Personality Tests: psychological assessment device in which a set of standard stimuli (drawings/Inkblots) ambiguous enough to allow variation in responses is presented to the individual PSYB32 – Abnormal Psychology Projective Hypothesis: Because these stimulus material are unstructured, their responses will be determined primarily by unconscious processes and will reveal their true attitudes, motives and behaviours a. Rorschach Inkblot Test: shown 10 inkblots, one at a time, asked to tell what figures or objects they see in each one b. Thematic Apperception Test (TAT): shown a series of b&w pictures on by one and asked to tell a story related to each 3. Intelligence Test: (A. Binet) IQ test. – assessing a person’s current mental ability a. Helps determine whether a person is mentally retarded or intellectually gifted b. Highly reliable and have good criterion validity Standardization: the process of - many people take the same test at different times, responses are analyzed to indicate how certain kinds of people tend to respond ~ sufficient data is established and called Statistical Norms * Study page 111 table – Clinical Interpretations of items similar to those on the MMPI-2 Behaviourally oriented clinicians often use a system that involves the assessment of four sets of variables 1. “S” for Stimuli 2. “O” for Organismic 3. “R” for overt Responses 4. “C” for Consequent Variable Self-monitoring Individuals to observe their own behaviour and to keep track of categories of responses. Used to collect a variety of data including mood, stressful experiences, coping behaviours and thoughts. Self observation is also “ECOLOGICAL MOMENTARY ASSESSMENT (EMA)” – involves the collection of data in real time as opposed to the usual of having people reflect back over some time period. Recalling information can be biased because you cant remember everything exactly than when it actually happened Cognitive Assessment Direct Observation Reactivity: behaviour changing because it is being observed PSYB32 – Abnormal Psychology VideoTape Reconstuction Strategy for ass
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