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Psyb20 Chapter Notes.docx

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Mark Schmuckler

Psyb20 Chapter Notes Chapter 1 Arnold Gesell Maturation: a genetically determined process of growth that unfolds naturally over a period of time Pattern of developmental change: Continuity VS Discontinuity Continuity – development is smooth and gradual accumulation, each new event builds on earlier experiences, w/o abrupt change (quantitative) Discontinuity – abrupt, step-like changes, each (qualitatively) different from the one that precedes it Most contemporary developmentalists believe a third view  fundamentally continuous but interspersed with transitions that may appear sudden Structural-organismic perspective: organism goes through an organized or structured series of stages, or discontinuous changes (qualitative), over the course of development - Developed by Freud (emotions and personality) and Piaget (thinking), interested in psychological development Psychodynamic Theory: - Freud’s theory - Proceeds in discrete stages, determined largely by biologically based drives shaped by encounters w/ the environment and through the interaction of 3 components of personality: 1. Id (instinctual drive), 2. Ego (rational, reality bound), 3. Superego (internalization of morals and roles) Freud, Personality development = 5 stages 1. Oral – (0-1) focus on eating and taking things into the mouth 2. Anal – (1-3) emphasis on toilet training, learn to postpone personal gratification 3. Phallic – (3-6) curious about sexual urges and anatomy 4. Latency – ( 6 – 12) sexual urges repressed, children avoid relationships with peers of the other gender 5. Genital -(20-3
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