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Chapter 12

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY100H1
Professor
Mark Schmuckler
Semester
N/A

Description
Week 9 – Chapter 12: Expanding the Social World: Peers and Friends Types of Plays in Preschool-age Children (2 to 4 year olds) 1. Solitary Play: play by themselves, ignore other children who are near (2.5 yrs) 2. Parallel Play: 2 children play similar activities, often side by but do not engage one another, diminishes ~3 to 4 yrs old 3. Associative play: play with other children, share toys and materials, comment on another child’s ongoing activities (common in 3 to 4 yrs, less often in 2 yrs) 4. Co-operative play: cooperate, reciprocate and share common goals (ex, building a sand castle, drawing a picture together etc.) – age 3 to 4 yrs How peers help to socialize children: 1. Modelling behaviours 2. Teaching and reinforcing (“peer pressure”) 3. Social comparison and the developing self Peer Acceptance Sociometric techniques: a procedure for determining children’s status within their peer group in which peers nominate others whom they like best or least or rate each child in the group for her likeability or desirability as a companion Factors that affect peer status - Child’s cognitive and social skills (ability to interact with other and to communicate effectively) 5 Stages (processing and acting on social info) 1. Encodes cue, 2. Interprets cues, 3. Clarify goals, 4. Review possible actions, 5. Decide on an action, 6. Act on decision In western societies, children spend most of their time with same-age peers, playing less than one third of the time with children 2+ yrs older or younger Consequences of rejected children = poor achievement, school avoidance and loneliness Reputational bias: children’s tendency to interpret peers behaviour on the basis of past encounters with and feeling about them Promoters of Peer Acceptance: Parents and Teachers - Parents interact in a positive and agreeable manner + concerned with child’s feelings as well as their own  well accepted children - Parents who abuse a child often prevent the child from dev
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