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Chapter 7

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Chapter 7 Motivation – a term used to denote the forces and factors, usually viewed as residing w/in the person, that energize and direct behaviour Common motivational ideas in personality psych include wants, desires, needs, goals, strivings, projects, and tasks The Psychoanalytic View Sigmund Freud most influential: psychoanalysis – focus on the unconscious det6terminants of behaviour, intrapsychic conflict, and instinctual drives concerning sexuality and aggression. Also denotes the process of engaging in psychotherapy from a psychoanalytic standpoint  Determinism o Forces over which we have little control determine all human behaviour and experience, someone making us move (pawns in chess game)  Drive o These forces exist w/in us, traced back to primitive drives/instincts, sexuality and aggression  Conflict o Causes anxiety, want too much what we can't have  The unconscious o We don’t even know what those forces that determine our behaviour and those conflicts that precipitate our anxiety are, no control over life Two sets of instincts or drives 1. Sexuality and all other life instincts – instincts serving sexual reproduction and survival (sometimes called “Eros”) 2. Aggression and all other death instincts – instinctual drives assumed to motivate the person toward behaviour and experience promoting one’s own death and destruction or aggression toward others (sometimes called “Thanatos”) The Unconscious Unconscious – the state of being outside of awareness  Arthur Schopenhauer and Friedrich Nietzsche emphasized aspects of human functioning that are outside of consciousness, typically emotional and irrational urges that are antagonistic to conscious reason  William Wordsworth and John Keats, generally placed the person’s heroic and creative powers  Hypnotism was used to gain access to the unconscious mind as early as 1784  Baumesiter and Gay argue that middle-class adults in 19 -century Europe accepted the general idea of an inner world unknowable to the conscious self o Baumesiter even asserts that Victorian men and woman were preoccupied with the involuntary revelation of this inner self to others  While you might be able to attain conscious insight into the deep secrets of your own mind, the Victorians believed there was always the danger of unintentionally revealing the nature of your own unconscious to others, who as objective outside observers might even come to know you better than you know yourself  Topographical model – Freud’s model of the mind, which distinguishes among the conscious, preconscious, and unconscious regions. The conscious corresponds to everyday awareness; the preconscious contains the contents of ordinary memory, to which awareness may be directed at any time; and the unconscious contains wishes, feelings, memories, and so on that have been repressed b/c they threaten the wellbeing of the conscious self o Conscious – what you are currently aware of o Preconscious – not currently aware but could readily entre awareness should you decide to retrieve the material, storehouse of important and trivial info o Unconscious - can’t be readily retrieved, contains elements of experience that have been actively repressed, repository for ideas, images, urges, and feelings that are associated with conflict, pain, fear, guilt, and so on Repression and Repressors People sometimes attain good insights and arrive at satisfying conclusions when they put conscious thought aside and go with their gut intuitions Repression - Freud’s concept for the process of casting thoughts, memories, feelings, and conflicts out of consciousness, rendering them unremembered  Stored away b/c they threaten a person’s well-being Repressors – Wienberger, Schwartz, Davidson, persons who experience little anxiety on a conscious level and who adopt a highly defensive approach to life  Research suggests that repressors have less access than do other people to negative emotional memories about the self  Repression may also involve a more general failure to retrieve emotional memories of various kinds (fig. 7.1)  Report a greater number of memories involving emotional experiences of other people but when it comes to recalling events in which the strong emotions experienced are their own, and especially when those emotions entail painful sates of fear and self-consciousness, repressors seem to have difficulty summoning such memories into awareness Hansen and Hansen “the architecture of repression”, the mechanisms whereby emotionally tagged memories, especially unpleasant memories, are left inaccessible  Repressors have an “associative network” for negative emotional experoences by substantially less complex and more discrete than that found for negative memories experienced by other people Negative recollections have a characteristically simple structure, and these memories are split off from other memories, isolated outside the main network of interrelated autobiographical recollections Repressors and nonrepressors organize their episodic memories in different ways  Repressors simplify negative memories to emphasize a single dominant feeling, as a way of keeping these memories from connecting in their minds to other autobiographical memories containing other feelings  Nonrepressors tend to describe their negative memories in more complex terms, emphasizing a number of different emotional states in the same memory and integrating the negative memory with the main lines of their autobiographical self In periods of extreme stress repressive coping styles can lead to resilience – the ability to overcome difficult obstacles in like and thrive amidst adversity (study page 265) The Ego’s Defenses Id – the home for instinctual impulses of sex and aggression and their unconscious derivative wishes, fantasises, and inclinations  Provides all instinctual energy for metal life  Knows no inhibitions  Obeys no logical or moral constraints  Completely out of touch w/ the outside world of reality  Dictated by the pleasure principle – individual seek immediate gratification of instinctual impulses and wishes  Driving force behind primary process thinking – a very loose and irrational form of thinking driven by instinctual demands (dreams_ o Motivated by the sexual and aggressive instincts Ego – serves as the mediator among the id, superego, and external reality  Operates according to the reality principle – pushing the individual towards behaviour aimed at coping w/ conflicting demands, rationally weighing choices, and defending against various threats to the well-being of the person o Suspends immediate instinctual gratification until either an appropriate object or environmental condition arises that will satisfy the instinct  Manifested as secondary process – rational cognitive activity associated w/ the functioning of the ego, geared toward solving problems in a rational and realistic manner  A good deal of coping w/ the inevitable conflicts that arise in daily life is carried out unconsciously by the ego through defense mechanisms – unconscious strategies of the ego designed to distort reality in order to lessen anxiety (table 7.2) Superego – a primitive internalized representation of the norms and vales of society as acquired through identification w/ the parents at the resolution of the Oedipus complex.  Repeatedly tells person what he or she should and should not be doing  A strict and inflexible agent who insists on the renunciation or repression of the id’s instinctual demands  Id: “Yes! Go for it—now!” Superego replies: “No! Not in a million years!” o But both share characteristics  Demanding and inflexible  Blind to constraints and demands of outside world Studies done by Cramer: some defense mechanisms are relatively primitive and immature (such as denial), whereas others are more complex and mature (such as sublimation)  Immature defense mechanisms should arise early in life and then taper off, while mature mechanisms should develop somewhat later  Focused on three defense mechanisms: o Most primitive is denial – person badly refuses to acknowledge an anxiety-provoking event  E.g. widowed woman may claim she feels no grief o More threatening than denial is projection – person attributes unacceptable internal states and qualities to external others  E.g. a businessman insecure about his own marriage may suspect that many of his colleagues are having extramarital affairs o Most mature defense mechanism studied by Cramer is identification – person forms and enduring mental representation of significant others  Person replicates the behavioural traits of others as a way of coping Psychoanalytical theory suggests that primitive defenses are more likely to appear during the most stressful points of a person’s life The Humanistic View Humanistic psychology – emphasizes the creative, optimistic, and self-actualizing tendencies of human beings Carl Roger’s Theory Client-centred theory – brand of psychotherapy, emphasizing empathy, sincerity, warmth, acceptance, role-playing, and respect for the dignity of the client The person must be understood from the perspective of his or her phenomenal field – entire panorama of a person’s experience and subjective apprehension of reality  Person’s overall frame of reference, roots of behaviour are here  To learn about the person’s phenomenal field, the psychologist must listen carefully to their subjective report of experience, thereby achieving empathy w/ the other Fully functioning –attained maturity and actualization and is therefore consciously aware of the many different facets of his or her life and able to symbolize many seemingly inconsistent aspects of experience and integrate them into a coherent whole  Person who is able to fulfil his or her potential  Leads a life that is rich in emotional experience and self-discovery  Reflective, spontaneous, flexible, adaptable, confident, trusting, creative, self- reliant  Operates according to the organismic valuing process – ability to view events and developments from the standpoint of his or her own growth and maturation  Likely to have experienced a great deal of unconditional positive regard – love and acceptance provided in an uncritical and noncontingent manner Conditions of worth – the belief that some aspects of one’s experience are good or worthy and others are not worthy Like Freud, Rogers believed that people suffer from important conflicts, many of which involve unconscious issues in their lives. But the conflicts derive from conflicts b/w the self and apprehended conditions of worth rather than b/w instinctual forcers and superego demands If we attain the fully functioning status, we no longer impose conditions of worth on out experiences but accept our entire organismic experience as good and fulfilling Abraham Maslow’s Psychology of Being Self-actualization – the fundamental human striving toward fulfilling one’s entire potential Suggested that the need for self-actualization is undergirded by at least four other kinds of needs, forming a need hierarchy – ladder of needs in which physiological needs (food, water, sleep) provide a foundation for the successive emergence and satisfaction of safety needs
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