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Chapter 9

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Chapter 9 Martin Luther’s Identity Crisis Erikson’s concept of identity is a characteristic developmental adaptation. Its an aspect of personality that involves the resolution of important life tasks during a particular stage of development Erik Erikson’s Theory of Psychological Development Developmental Stages in Childhood Freud used the word libido to refer to the energy that he believed was derived from sexual drives, set 5 stages of the libido’s development and in each stage the libido expresses itself through a particular zone of the body called the erogenous zone Erikson has 8 stages, central conflict defines stage, conflict must be addressed in order to move on to next stage (page 351) Oral stage – libido is expressed mainly through oral activities  Trust vs. mistrust – infant seeks to establish a hopeful and trusting relation w/ the environment Anal stage – libido expressed in anus, manifested in bowel movement, shaped by toilet training  Autonomy vs. shame and doubt – toddler seeks to establish themselves as an independent and competent agent in the environment Phallic stage – libido expressed through genital region  Initiative vs. guilt – child experiences Oedipus complex and becomes concerned w/ issues of power and taking initiative  Boys: intrusive mode of operation, being aggressive  Girls: inclusive mode, teasing, demanding, gasping Latency stage – libido is rarely expressed in an overt manner  Industry vs. inferiority – schoolboy/girl receives systematic instructions from social institutions and beings to lean how to use tools and adopt the characteristic roles of society The Problem of Identity Emerging adulthood – refers to the period in the life course running from the late teenage years into the mid-20s, issues of identity first confronted Adolescence and Young Adulthood Genital stage – attained at puberty w/ full sexual maturation  Identity vs. role confusion – who am I? how do I fit into adult world? Jean Piaget: formal operations – abstract, hypothetico-deductive thinking Identity Statuses James Marcia: developed a semistructured interview to ask questions about exploration and commitment as they apply to the two ears of life that Erikson repeatedly suggested were at the heart of identity 1. Occupation, or what work role in society the person will occupy 2. Ideology, or what the person’s fundamental beliefs and values are in the areas of religion and politics Identity statuses – the extent to which a young person has explored and made commitments to different identity options 1. Identity achievement – person who has explored various identity options and successfully made commitments to realistic identity goals o Strive for internalized goals and rely on their own skills and capacities in meeting daily challenges o Less concerned w/ winning their parents’ love o Scored high on PSE of achievement motivation o Tend not to conform to peer pressure and social norms 2. Moratorium – currently exploring identity issues but haven’t made commitments yet o Should become identity achievers o More mature o Use more mature defense mechanisms to cope w/ stress o Tend to adopt a more engaged and exploratory style in processing info about the world around them o Extremely friendly, likeable, sensitive, insightful o Negative identities – represent everything the young person doesn’t want to be, parents may be the “enemy” 3. Foreclosure – fails to meet explore, but makes commitments to unquestioned positions taken from childhood o Chooses to do exactly what important authority persons have suggested o Very close to parents, especially sons to fathers o Describe their homes as loving and affectionate o Appear the “best behaved” o Study diligently, appear happy o Low in autonomy and anxiety, show unrealistically high levels of aspirations 4. Identity diffusion – yet to enter exploration and make commitments o Tend to feel out of place and socially isolated Identity and Intimacy 6 stage of life, intimacy vs. isolation – young adult seeks to establish long-term affiliations w/ spouse, co-workers, friends Intimacy status – referring to the characteristic quality of a person’s interpersonal relationships and commitments at a given point in time (page 361, 4 statuses) Generativity and Adult Development Generativity vs. stagnation – extent to which adult seeks to guide the next generation and generate a legacy for the self 7 features of generativity 1. Cultural demand o Developmental expectations o Societal opportunities
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