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Chapter 1

Chapter 1 - Evolution of Psychology.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Dax Urbszat

Chapter 1 – Evolution of Psychology Structuralism vs. Functionalism  Structuralism (Titchener): based on notion that task of psychology is to analyze consciousness into its basic elements and investigate how these elements (sensations, feeling, images) are related  Used method of introspection: careful, systematic self-observation of one’s own conscious experience (no independent objective evaluation of claims)  Functionalism (William James): based on belief that psychology should investigate function or purpose of consciousness rather than its structure (behavioural differences between sexes, mental testing, patterns of development in children  William James: consciousness is a continuous flow, cannot look at static points  Structuralism gravitated to the laboratory, functionalism more interested in people adapting behaviour to demands of world around them  Functionalism (kinda won, led to behaviourism and applied psychology) Other schools of thought:  Behaviourism (Watson): theoretical orientation based on the premise that scientific psychology should study only observable behaviour  Watson Abandon study of consciousness and focus on behaviours that can be observed directly, and he also downplayed role of heredity  Behavioural approach referred to as stimulus response (S-R) psychology  Behaviourism challenged by Gestalt and Freud  Gestalt psychologists concerned with perception, should study conscious experience rather that behaviour  Freud: the unconscious contains thoughts, memories, and desires that are well below the surface of conscious awareness but exert great influence on behaviour  Freuds psychoanalytic theory: attempts to explain personality, motivation, and mental disorders by focusing on unconscious determinants of behaviour  Skinner also a behaviourist but different way of thinking: organisms tend to repeat responses that lead to positive outcomes, and they tend not to repeat responses that are neutral or negative  All behaviour is fully governed by external stimuli, behaviour is predictable, not a result of conscious decisions  Behaviourism dominant school of thought during 1950s and 1960s  Humanism (Rogers and Maslaw): theoretical orientation that emphasizes the unique qualities of humans, especially their freedom and their potential for personal growth  Humanism opposed psychoanalytical + behaviourist way of thinking  Humans different from animals, research on animals not good enough  Human behaviour governed primarily by each individual’s sense of self, human drive toward personal growth  Cognitive (chomsky, simon, piaget, and hebb): human behaviour cannot be fully understood without examining how people acquire, store and process info  Hebb: emphasis on importance of brain in behaviour, locus of behaviour should be sought in the brain,
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