Textbook Notes (363,688)
Canada (158,529)
Psychology (2,948)
PSY100H1 (1,804)

ch 7,8,9,10,11,12 lecture notes

20 Pages
Unlock Document

Ashley Waggoner Denton

Chapter 7 • Attention: In order for something to potentially be remembered, it must be attended to in the first place • Attention is selective • It has to be selective because it is limited • Selective attention is adaptive • Change blindness: the common failure for people to notice large changes in their environment • Examples: Visual search tasks • Searching for one feature is fast and automatic (parallel processing) • The target will “pop out” at you • Searching for two (or more) features is slow and effortful (serial processing) • Must examine each target one-by-one • Selective listening – The cocktail party phenomenon – shadowing: A person listens to two different messages (one presented to the left ear, and one to the right) and only attends to one of the messages (by repeating it aloud) • Generally have no conscious knowledge about the information being presented to the other (unattended) ear Models of Memory The info processing model:  Encoding phase: Information is acquired and processed into a neural code that the brain can use  Storage phase: The retention of encoded information (whether it is for a second or a lifetime)  Retrieval phase: Recalling or remembering the stored information when we need it Sensory memory: Memory Short-term or Working memory: for sensory information that Memory that will remain for only about 20- Long-term memory: The relatively lasts only a fraction of a permanent storage of information second. We are not usually 30 seconds, unless you actively think • Differs from working memory in even aware of it. about or rehearse it terms of both duration and • E.g., remembering a phone capacity number or licence plate Working memory  7 (plus or minus 2) (though some argue for less)  Chunking: Organizing information into meaningful units to make it easier to remember o E.g., KFC CEO UBC PHD UTM (6 units) much easier to remember than KFCCEOUBCPHDUTM (15 units)  The working memory system has 4 components:  Phonological loop: Auditory information  Visuospatial sketchpad: Visual and spatial information  Episodic buffer: Information about oneself  Central executive: Coordinates information between each component as well as long-term memory Working memory vs long term memory  Serial position effect: The ability to recall items from a list depend on the order of presentation  Primacy effect: Better memory for items presented at the beginning of the list  Recency effect: Better memory for items presented at the end of the list  Maintenance rehearsal: Simply repeating the item over and over again  Elaborative rehearsal: Involves encoding the information in more meaningful ways o Linking it to knowledge in long-term memory • It’s easy to see that not all long- term memories are the same! Long term Memory • Take a moment to remember: – A TV commercial from your childhood – The capital of France – What you did on your last birthday – How you tie your shoes • Explicit memory: The processes involved when people remember specific information  information that we are consciously aware of – Declarative memory: Knowledge that can be declared Types: episodic memory: Memory of your personal past experiences that includes information about the time and place the experiences occurred • E.g., What you did on your last birthday – Semantic memory: Memory for knowledge about the world – things that you know, even though you may not remember where or when you learned it • E.g., The capital of France • Implicit memory: The system underlying unconscious memories  memories we acquire without awareness or intention and do not even know that we know Types of implicit memory • Classical conditioning – E.g., Knowing that certain music is associated with bad things • Repetition priming – Improvement in identifying or processing a stimulus that has been experienced previously • E.g., Complete the word: ___ory • Procedural memory – Motor skills, habits, and other behaviours that we remember how to do without thinking about it – Clive Wearing Other Types of Memory • prospective memory: Remembering to do something in the future – May be automatically activated by a cue in the environment (seeing your neighbour’s trash bin) – May also involve controlled processes (“take out the trash, take out the trash, take out the trash…”) Memories are not a recording, it is a construction, mental representations, stored in networks of neurons in the brain Long term memory: information organization • Association networks • Schemas: Hypothetical cognitive structures that help us perceive, organize, process, and use information • retrieval cue: Anything that helps someone recall information from memory • Could be a word, a sight, a smell… • Encoding specificity principle: Any stimulus that is encoded along with an experience can later trigger memory for the experience • Context dependent memory: Memory enhancement that occurs when the recall situation is similar to the encoding situation • May be similar in terms of physical location, background music, odours, etc. • Ie/ Scuba divers learning a list of words either underwater or on land (and then recalling the words either underwater or on land) • Scuba divers learning a list of words either underwater or on land (and then recalling the words either underwater or on land) (Godden & Baddeley, 1975) • Learning a list of words with instrumental background music or white noise (and then recalling the words while the same instrumental music or white noise played) (Smith, 1985) • Revisiting a childhood home or school can bring back a “flood” of memories (Baddeley et al., 2009) • Mentally visualizing the encoding environment can also work (Smith & Vela, 2001) • Stress can interfere with context-dependent memory • State dependent memory: Memory enhancement that occurs when one’s internal state during the recall situation is similar to the encoding situation The Biology of Memory • Memories are stored in multiple regions of the brain and linked through memory circuits • Different memory systems use different brain regions • Medial temporal lobes: Important for the consolidation of new declarative memories – Responsible for coordinating and strengthening the connections among neurons when something is learned (but not the storage of memories) – E.g., Patient H.M., Clive Wearing – Reconsolidation occurs every time a memory is activated  may differ from the original memory • Hippocampus: Particularly important for spatial memory  memory for the physical environment (location of objects, direction, cognitive maps) – Rats and the Morris Water Maze • Frontal lobes: Crucial for encoding, and involved in many aspects of memory – E.g., Working memory • Amygdala: Memory of emotional events – E.g., People who were in downtown Manhattan on 9/11 • Cerebellum: Procedural memory – E.g., motor learning, eyeblink conditioning • Memory modulators: Neurotransmitters that weaken or enhance memory – E.g., Epinephrine, norepinephrine activity in the amygdala Forgetting • Transience: The pattern of forgetting over time • Most forgetting occurs because of interference: – proactive interference: When prior information inhibits the ability to remember new information • E.g., Memory of your old phone number interfering with your ability to remember your new phone number – retroactive interference: When new information inhibits the ability to remember old information • E.g., Memory of your current postal code interfering with your ability to remember your old postal code • Blocking: The temporary inability to remember something that is known – The tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon • Absentmindedness: Forgetting due to shallow encoding or failing to pay attention Memory Distortion • Misattribution: Misremembering the time, place, person, or circumstances involved with a memory – E.g., Thinking you told your friend something when you didn’t (e.g., you just imagined telling them, or you told another friend) • Suggestibility: Misremembering after being told misleading information – E.g., “How fast were the cars going when they ________ into each other?” – False memories can be surprisingly easy to plant – E.g., Remember the time you got lost in the mall? Eye Witness Testimony • Witnessing a Crime • It is very difficult to distinguish an accurate eyewitness from an inaccurate one • Confidence is unrelated to accuracy • Just because someone is very confident in their account of a crime does not mean that they are remembering correctly • People tend to focus on weapons, or actions, not minor details (e.g., clothing, appearance) Summary • Attention determines what is remembered • Memory involves encoding, storage, and retrieval • There are different stages of memory (sensory  short-term  long-term) • There are multiple long-term memory systems (e.g., episodic, semantic, procedural) • Memories are reconstructed every time they are recalled • Memories can be forgotten, distorted, or false Chapter 8: Thinking & Intelligence • How do we use knowledge to solve problems and make decisions? • How do we understand “intelligence”? • How do we organize and represent knowledge? • A representation is anything that stands in for, or corresponds to, something else • E.g., a map is a representation of city streets; a portrait is a representation of a person • A mental representation is a hypothetical 'internal' cognitive symbol that represents external reality • Cognitive psychologists are interested in understanding cognition – how we think and represent information (our internal mental processes) Types of Mental Representations • analogical representations: Mental representations which have some of the characteristics of (i.e., they are analogous to) actual objects Eg. Image of queen • symbolic representations: Abstract mental representations which do not correspond to the characteristics of actual objects – E.g., “Queen” Analogical Representations • We form mental images of many objects – Such mental images allow us to answer questions about objects that are not in our presence • E.g., How many pillows are typically on your couch at home? – Also allows us to solve problems • E.g., How many people do you think can comfortably fit in your living room? – And we can manipulate these mental images • E.g., Is this letter a mirror image or not? How are these representations organized? • Of course, we do not have mental images (or visual representations) of everything we know – We use symbolic representations (words) to represent our much of our knowledge • How is this knowledge organized? – Categorization: The process of grouping things based on shared information – Concept: A mental representation of an object, event, or idea (e.g., “chair”) • Can be divided into smaller groups with more precise labels (e.g., “desk chair”, “arm chair”) • Can also be combined into larger groups with more general labels (e.g., “chair” and “table” are both types of “furniture”) Organization of Concepts • Defining Attribute Model: Objects are categorized according to a certain set of rules or specific set of features – E.g., “A triangle is a figure having three angles and three sides” – E.g., “A bird is a warm-blooded, feathered vertebrate, who lays eggs, has wings, and can fly” • Problems with the defining attribute model: – We often make exceptions to our rules (e.g., penguins) – Some attributes are more important for defining category membership than others (e.g., has wings vs. warm-blooded) – Some concepts appear to be better category members than others (e.g., sparrow vs. ostrich) • Prototype Model: Objects are categorized according to how closely they resemble the “prototype” (or best example) of the category – Allows for flexibility in the representation of concepts – Explains why some category members are better examples than others (e.g., sparrows are probably closer to your prototype of bird than penguins or ostriches) – Problem: How is the prototype chosen? • Exemplar Model: Instead of a specific prototype, all members of the category that we have encountered form the concept – Your representation of bird consists of all of the birds you have encountered – If you see something new, and it most closely resembles the birds you have encountered, you conclude that it is a bird • We can follow either a rule-based (defining attribute) or resemblance-based (prototype or exemplar) approach, it just depends on the situation – E.g., Seeing a bat dart by in the night • Initial reaction may be “bird”  based on resemblance • But if you investigated further, would see that it shares more features with mammals than birds (e.g., has hair instead of feathers, gives live birth instead of eggs, etc.)  based on rules Schema • Our knowledge of the world goes beyond lists of facts about items • Schemas help us perceive, organize, and process information  they allow us to function effectively within our complex daily environments • Schemas about the sequences of events in certain situations are known as scripts – E.g., Most of us have a script for going to a restaurant • Schemas are helpful because (1) common situations have consistent attributes (e.g., restaurants serve food), (2) people have specific roles with situational contexts (e.g., waiters take your order and bring your food) How do we use knowledge? • Reasoning: Using information to determine if a conclusion is valid or reasonable – Are the presidential candidates making entirely truthful claims during the debate? • Decision Making: Attempting to select the best alternative among several options – Should I vote for Barack Obama or Mitt Romney? • Problem Solving: Finding a way around an obstacle to reach a goal – I’ll be out of the country on election day, so how can I vote? Reasoning • Are the presidential candidates making entirely truthful claims during the debate?” • Deductive reasoning: You reason from the general to the specific, by using a belief or rule to determine if a conclusion is valid – “Politicians always lie, or bend the truth, in order to get votes. The presidential candidates are politicians, so they are probably not making entirely truthful claims” – Syllogisms: Logical arguments containing premises (statements) and a conclusion. (E.g., If the person is a politician, then you can be certain they are lying) • Inductive reasoning: You reason from the specific to the general, by using examples or instances to determine if a conclusion is likely to be true – “Romney and Obama have both made untruthful statements in the past, so they both have a tendency to lie, and therefore are probably not making entirely truthful claims” • Both types of reasoning have their flaws, and can at times lead to inappropriate conclusions Decision Making & Heuristics • Should I vote for Barack Obama or Mitt Romney?” • heuristics: Shortcuts or “rules of thumb” used to reduce the amount of thinking that is needed to make a decision – E.g., “I’m a Democrat, so I’ll vote for Obama” • Benefits of heuristics: – Require minimal cognitive resources – Allows us to decide quickly – Often lead to reasonably good decisions Availability Heuristic • Availability heuristic: Estimating the frequency of an event based on how easily examples of it come to mind – E.g., Which is more frequent in the English language? A. Words that begin with the letter K B. Words that begin with the letter T Representativeness Heuristic • Making judgments of likelihood based on how similar the person or object is to our prototype for that category – E.g., Linda is 31 years old, single, outspoken, and very bright. She majored in philosophy. As a student, she was deeply concerned with issues of discrimination and social justice, and also participated in antinuclear demonstrations. Which is more likely? • A. Linda is a bank teller • B. Linda is a bank teller and is active in the feminist movement. – Conjunction fallacy: The mistaken belief that finding a specific member in two overlapping categories (bank tellers & feminists) is more likely than finding any member of one of the larger, general categories (bank tellers) venediagram Anchoring Effects • The anchoring effect occurs when an individual attempts to solve a problem involving numbers and uses previous knowledge to keep (i.e., anchor) the response within a limited range – E.g., In what year was John A. MacDonald born? • As we saw, anchors can also be introduced by other people (not just internally generated) Framing Effects • Framing effects refer to changes in the way information is perceived as a result of the way in which the information was presented – For example, framing a decision to emphasize either the potential losses or the potential gains of a decision alternative – E.g., Imagine Canada is preparing for the outbreak of a disease that is projected to kill about 600 people. We need to choose between two alternative programs for combating the disease. • Program A: 200 people will be saved • Program B: There is a one-third probability that 600 people will be saved, and a two-thirds probability that no one will be saved • Program C: 400 people will die • Program D: There is a one-third probability that nobody will die, and a two-third probability that 600 people will die • Programs A and C are identical, as are Programs B and D (A and B are just framed in terms of gains, while C and D are framed in terms of losses)  so why do people prefer A over B, but prefer D over C? – People like sure gains, and dislike sure losses • Loss Aversion: Losing is much worse than gaining is good. Thus, people try to avoid situations that involve loss. Affective Forecasting • How good are we at actually predicting our future emotions? – How happy would you be one year after winning a million dollars? – How sad would you be one year after losing your leg to cancer? • We tend to overestimate the extent to which negative events will affect us in the future  our psychological immune system does a remarkable job of protecting us from negative feelings, though we are largely unaware of it operating • Dan Gilbert: Surprising Science of Happiness • Intelligence: The human ability to use knowledge, solve problems, understand complex ideas, learn quickly, and adapt to environmental challenges • There are numerous approaches to studying intelligence • There are numerous components of intelligence Are IQ tests valid? • Yes  Scores on IQ tests do help predict how successful someone will be at school or in a complex career – However, IQ is only one of many factors that predict success – Many other factors (motivation, work ethic, etc.) are just as important • Intelligence Quotient (IQ): A score on a normed test of intelligence (i.e., how your score compares to other people who have take the test before you) – The average IQ is set at 100, with a standard deviation of 15 Types of Intelligence • General Intelligence (g): The idea that one general factor underlies all mental abilities • Raymond Cattell (1971) divided intelligence into two types: – Fluid intelligence: Information processing in novel or complex circumstances (e.g., the ability to think quickly and flexibly  working memory) – Crystallized intelligence: Knowledge acquired through experience, and the ability to use this knowledge to solve problems (long-term memory) Types of Intelligence: Multiple Intelligences • Howard Gardner (1983) proposed a theory of multiple intelligences, which promoted the idea that people can show different skills in a variety of different domains – Recognizes that people can be average or deficient in some domains and outstanding in others – Includes: Musical intelligence Bodily-kinaesthetic intelligence Linguistic intelligence Mathematical/logical intelligence Visual/spatial intelligence Intrapersonal intelligence Interpersonal intelligence • Sternberg (1999) proposed 3 types of intelligence: analytical, creative, practical • Emotional intelligence (EQ) is a social intelligence that emphasizes the ability to manage one’s emotions, recognize emotions in others, understand emotional language, and use emotions to guide thoughts and actions Effects of Stereotypes About Intelligence • Some groups may score lower on standardized tests of intelligence due to stereotype threat: apprehension about confirming negative stereotypes related to one’s own group  interferes with working memory, and leads to poorer performance – E.g., Female participants who are primed with the “women are bad at math” stereotype; Black participants who believe that the test is diagnostic of intelligence (shown below) Chapter 9: Motivation and Emotions I. What are the factors that motivate behaviour? – What motivates you to eat? – What motivates you to study? – What motivates you to ask someone out on a date? II. Why do we have emotions and how do they influence our behaviour? Needs and Drives • Drives (e.g., hunger) are psychological states that encourage behaviours (e.g., eating) that satisfy needs (e.g., food) – Encourage behaviour by increasing arousal • It is not only our internal drives that guide our behaviour • incentives_: External stimuli (as opposed to internal drives) that motivate behaviours – E.g., The food tastes good, so we eat though we are not hungry Eating • There are numerous theories regarding the internal signals responsible for hunger and satiation • Leptin is a hormone released from fat which travels to the hypothalamus and inhibits eating behaviour • Ghrelin is a hormone from the stomach that surges before eating and decreases after eating • Glucostatic theory  glucose levels in the bloodstream • Lipostatic theory  set-point for body fat • Drives  Arousal • Arousal  Motivation • Motivation  Performance (?) • Extrinsic motivation: Motivation to perform an activity because of the external goals toward which the activity is directed • intrinsic motivation: Motivation to perform an activity because of the value or pleasure associated with the activity, rather than for an apparent external goal or purpose Self-Regulation • Self-regulation is the process by which people alter or change their behaviour to attain personal goals – People differ in self-efficacy • Self-regulation is difficult! Often involves postponing short-term rewards in the pursuit of long-term goals • Self-regulation seems to be a “limited resource” • Some psychologists view self-regulation as similar to exercising a muscle – over time, we become fatigued Self-regulation as a limited resource Independent variable: Type of food eaten • No food  Control condition • Cookie eaters  No self-regulation • Turnip eaters  Self-regulation Dependent variable: Time spent on unsolvable puzzle task • The turnip eaters had “used up” all of their self-regulatory resources, spent less effort on the puzzle than everyone else Self-Regulation: Delayed Gratification • Strategies: Turning hot cognitions into cold cognitions; ignoring; distraction – The ability to delay gratification as a child has been associated with numerous social and academic outcomes in adolescence and adulthood Marshmallow test Sexual Strategies Theory • An evolutionary theory that proposes that men and women rank the importance of qualities in their relationship partners differently because of gender-specific adaptive problems – Reproduction is a more intensive commitment for women, so they are more cautious about having sex – Importance of attractiveness versus status • Turns out that your brain in love does indeed look a lot like your brain on cocaine. And this is different from your brain in lust. – Evidence that there are different brain systems for sex and love (though they do, not surprisingly, become linked) • According to psychologist Art Aron, romantic love is not an emotion, but a motivation system designed to enable people to build and maintain an intimate relationship with a preferred mating partner – Romantic love as a goal-oriented state  the person we are in love with is the goal – Also associated wi
More Less

Related notes for PSY100H1

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.