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Chapter 10

PSY100H1 Textbook Notes: Chapter 10 Health and Well-being.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY100H1
Professor
Ashley Waggoner Denton
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 10 Health and Well-Being Study Guide 1. Health psychology is the area of psychological science that applies psychological principles to promote well being 2. health involves the absence of disease. In contrast, well-being focuses on positive state in which we feel our best 3. components of the biopsychosocial model a. biological characteristics b. behavioual factors c. social conditions 4. biopsychosocial model: her sickness is due to biological (her mom is frequently sick), behavioural (less sleep), and social conditions (works in high stress environment) 5. according to statistics we are most likely to die from heart disease 6. Mona most likely got better due to the placebo effect (believes that sugar water is medicine that will work). Steph most likely got better due to her body getting on its own (doesnt believe medicine will work) 8. a stressor is an environmental event or stimulus that threatens an organism; it elicits a coping response which is any response an organism makes to avoid, escape from, or minimize an aversive stimulus 9. Natalia experiences strain on her body resulting from the experience of distress when her fiancée cancels the wedding last minute 10. Stress: a. Some stress, in low does, is beneficial b. The greater the number of changes a person experiences, the greater the stress c. Different levels of stress are optimal for different people 11. daily hassles stressors 12. when the bird hits, the hypothalamus sends a chemical message to the pituitary gland, which then secretes hormones that travel through the bloodstream until they reach the adrenal glands, which in turn secrete cortisol or glucocorticoids. Cortisol is responsible for many of the feelings that we have when we are distressed, including a rush of energy. The influence of hormones is somewhat delayed so you will likely feel the rush of energy long after the shock of the bird-windshield encounter has passed. a. Hypothalamus sends chemicals to  pituitary gland secrete hormones  adrenal gland which secretes cortisol 13. Fight or flight response: ken’s body experiences a physiological reaction when he believes someone is following him and thinks he hears the click of a gun 14. Tend-and-befriend response: females tendency to protect and care for their offspring a. While in a business meeting about new marketing ideas, same has her ideas directly challenged. She responds by pointing out that several coworkers at the meeting share her view, and looks to them for support 15. 3 stages of the general adaptation syndrome a. Alarm b. Resistance c. Exhaustion 16. Alarm stage –emergency reaction: - driving along highway when huge 18 wheeler truck drifts into his lane right in front of him. His heart begins to pound and his blood pressure escalates as he swerves to avoid the truck 17. Stress negatively affects health: a. Stress leads to a lower lymphocyte (white blood cell) count in the blood b. stress increases the chances of engaging in unhealthy behaviours (ie. Poor diet) c. stress decreases the chances of engaging in healthy behaviours (ie. exercise) 18. Type A: doesn’t stop to talk, she speaks rapidly and interrupts the other person constantly, always frustrated and hostile, esp. when waiting in line or competing with other students 19. Research has identified hostility as the key characteristic of personality that relates to heart disease 20. Hostility may lead to greater heart disease in all of the following ways: a. increase in overeating, drinking too much, or smoking b. activating the fight or flight response c. elevating levels of cortisol and blood pressure 21. According to the allostatic load theory of illness the body regulates the response to excessive stress and tries to return to a steady state. If the state is too excessive, returning to a steady state is more difficult and makes the body prone to illness. The idea of a steady state is similar to the idea of homeostasis. 22. Secondary appraisals (evaluating their options and choosing coping behaviours) –he constructs a schedule that will allow him to get his work done as well as meet his social obligations. His evaluation of response options and potential coping behaviours is an example of secondary appraisals 23. Anticipatory coping –looking ahead in his day planner and knows that upcoming months is going to present a lot of stressors so changes his routine (ie. Sleeping earlier, exercising) 24. Downward comparisons – she was wining about unfairness of it all
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