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Chapter 12

PSY100H1 Textbook Notes: Chapter 12- Social Psychology.docx

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Ashley Waggoner Denton

Chapter 12 Social PsychologyThe Standford prison study demonstrated the speed at which apparently normal university students could be transformed into the social roles they were playingSocial psychology is concerned with how people influence other peoples thoughts feelings and actionsHow Do Attitudes Guide BehaviourAttitude the evaluation of objects events or ideas We Form Attitudes through experience and socializationMere exposure effect greater exposure to the item and therefore greater familiarity with it caused people to have more positive attitudes about the itemBehaviours Are Consistent with Strong Attitudesthe ease with which a person can retrieve memories related to an attitude attitude accessibility predicts behaviour consistent with the attitude explicit attitudes attitudes that people can reportimplicit attitudes attitudes that influence our feelings and behaviour at an unconscious level implicit association test IAT a reaction time test that can identify implicit attitudes measures how quickly we associate objects with positive or negative words Discrepancies Lead to Dissonance cognitive dissonance an uncomfortable mental state due to conflicts between attitudes or between attitudes and behaviour ex Smoking when person knows smoking will kill them Postdecisional Dissonanceholding positive attitudes about 2 options but having to choose one of them causes dissonance motivates person to focus on one schools the chosen schoolspositive aspects and the other schools negative aspectsAttitude Change one way to get people to change their attitudes is to change their behaviours first using as few incentives as possible giving children rewards for drawing creatively with coloured pens undermines how much they subsequently use the pens Justifying Effort when people put themselves through pain embarrassment or discomfort to join a group they experience a great deal of dissonance After all they typically would not choose to be in pain embarrassed or uncomfortable Yet they made a choice They resolve the dissonance by inflating the importance of the group and their commitment to it This justification of effort helps explain why people are willing to subject themselves to humiliating experiences such as hazingAttitudes Can be Changed through Persuasion persuasion the active and conscious effort to change attitudes through transmission of a message elaboration likelihood model a theory of how persuasive messages lead to attitude changes o persuasion works via two routes the central route in which people pay attention to arguments consider all the information and use rational cognitive processes leads to strong attitudes that last over time and are resistant to change o the peripheral route in which minimally process the message leads to moreimpulsive action as when a person decides to purchase a product because a celebrity has endorsed itthe cues that influence a messages persuasiveness include the source who delivers the message the content what the message says and the receiver who processes the messagesources who are both attractive and credible are the most persuasive strong arguments that appeal to our emotions are the most persuasiveone sided arguments work best when audience is on speakers side or is gulliblewith a more skeptical crowd speakers who acknowledge both sides but argue that one is superior tend to be more persuasive than those who completely ignore the opposing viewHow Do We Form Our Impressions of OthersWe automatically classify people into social categories and doing so can have major implications for how we treat them Nonverbal Actions and Expressions Affect Our Impressions Nonverbal behaviour aka body language the facial expressions gestures mannerisms and movements by which one communicates with others Facial Expressions Face communicates a great deal such as emotional state interest and distrust
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