CHAPTER:11 HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
Parental practices influence how motor skills develop in children.
Environment determines how a person’s genes are expressed and how they’re expressed.
The sperm from the male unites with the egg from the female to create the zygote.
2 weeks to 2 months the developing human is known as embryo. Hearts, lungs, liver, sex
organs, kidneys begin to form
After 2 months its called a fetus.
Hormones that circulate in the womb influence the developing if the fetus.
Teratogens- environmental agents that harm the embryo or fetus.
Newborns are able to process sensory stimuli. Prefer sweet taste over others.
They have good sense of smell
Hearing is better than their vision, range acuity is 20-30 centimetres
Grasping reflex is when a baby helds tightly to your finger.
Rooting reflex is the turning and sucking of a nipple of a similar object. Helps to learn
more complicated behavior patterns such as walking or feeding oneself.
Myeleination begins on the spinal cord during first trimester of pregnancy and on the
brains neurons. It increases the speed in which they are able to transmit signals
Myelinated axons form synapses with other neurons.
The brain develops “use it or lose it” policy, the frequently used connections are
preserved and the unused ones disappear and decay, this is known as synaptic pruning
and occurs on different areas of the brain
Synaptic density is highest in the auditory cortex around age 3, visual cortex around age
1-2 and prefrontal cortex is critical for reasoning, around age 6. After adolescence the
density of synapses remain constant
By age 4 humans brain size increase to about 80% of an adult brain size. This size
increase is due to myelination and new synaptic connections Early childhood nutrition also affects myelenation
Eric lennberg theorized young humans can acquire specific skills and knowledge but if
they are not acquired at a certain age they’re lost forever. Critical period.
Sensitive periods is when some skills are learnt most easily. Genie learned some aspect of
language later in life.
Infants need comfort and security besides food.
Harlow rhesus monkey experiment. Clung on to the cloth mother went it for comfort or in
times of threat
Mary ainsworth, strange-situation test.
Disorganized attachment style is when the infant give mix responses when their caregiver
leaves or returns
Emotionally or behaviorally inconsistent caregivers have children with anxious-
ambivalant attachment style. Personality is important
A third variable may cause the parent and child to behave in related ways
Oxytocin is important for caregiver/infant attachment, social bonding
Preferential looking technique- infants stare longer at things that interest them
Orienting reflex- tendency to pay more attention to new stimuli than to the habitual
stimuli grown accustomed to.
Infants respond to objects with high contrast patterns
Robert fanz black and white stripes experiment. Infants looked at strips with high contrast
more than grey images
Robart fox showed infants sterograms. One view of an image is shown to one eye and
another view to the other. If infants cannot use disparity information to perceive depth
they will see only a random collection of dots.
In 6 months infants have nearly adult levels of auditory function
Memory retention test. Mobile hanging over a crib was attached to an infants ankle.
Testing memory. Infantile amnesia- inability to remember events from early childhood
Young children often have source amnesia (difficulty knowing where they learned
something). Peoples earliest memory come from looking at family pictures
Children often confabulate. (honest lies/ make things up)
Jean piagets four stages of development. Sensorimotor, oreoperational,concrete
operational and formal operational that reflect different ways of thinking about the world.
Children form new shemas. Assimilation the process through which a new experience is
incorporated in an existing schema. Accommodation is the process through which a
schema is adopted or expanded to include the new experience. It does not ea