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Chapter 16

Chapter 16 Social and cultural psychology.doc

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University of Toronto St. George
Dan Dolderman

Test 2 review: functional fixedness, reconsolidation, milgram’s line expt (1/3 follows), consistency for joining cult, bridge (misattribution), naïve realism, high emotional something in family work together with drug effect… Cultural Psychology e.g., all cultures speak a language w. b/w 10-70 phonemes, all people smile when happy, all cultures have a word for “black” all cultures find parent-child incest to be disgusting, all cultures understand the number 2 a lot of classic findings are not replicable in different cultures the terrible 2s, 2 year olds in US scream and show autonomy in japan… they follow their culture, and parents don’t let them scream and stuff so it’s not a universal development stage fundamental attribution error not existing in china, japan, not so fundamental The 20 statement test I am…C:a student, a math club member… vs. I:funny, cool…. Individualists and collectivist cultures have different psychology Collectivist: who they are, is determined by who they’re with, it’s fluid; I is more consistent I’s experience dissonance when making difficult choices for themselves; C’s experience dissonance when making difficult choices for others but not when making choices for themselves we’re a blend of individualism & collectivism association with others Chapter 16 Social and cultural psychology  Cultural psych emerged to see how culture shapes psych processes because humans are social animals  Cultural environment is more inclusive than social environment, because can leave social environment but rarely leaves cultural environment  Individualistic culture vs. collectivistic culture  Universal psychology vs. cultural psychology (chilli taste spicy to all, but to varying degrees) What is culture? Some aspects of culture are shared by other species and some are unique to humans  All human behaviour or thoughts have been shaped by cultural learning  Cultural learning identified in other species has thus far been limited to specific and often isolated aspects of their behaviours.  Unique pervasiveness of culture in human lives that allow us to say humans are the only true cultural species  Eg. Monkey washing potato by watching others, takes long to spread  Dolphin’s cry--- limited learning from others  Humans learn better, some culture are learned by every member after only a single trial Humans have evolved to accumulate cultural information  Larger the group size, larger the cerebral cortex ratio  Understand social dynamics to realize the benefits of social living required evolution in 2 areas  Communication skills  Able to identify the intentions of fellow group members- theory of mind  Accumulate cultural info to develop more complex tools  Chimps can’t easily reproduce a behaviour leading to that they use the same tools as thousands years ago How does culture affect the mind  Culture and mind are inextricably bound  Culture emerge from mind interactions between people, and culture shape process going on in the mind  In NA, students grouped together based on abilities  In japan, all have same access  NA highlights individuality of each student and each to receive individualized education than to stay with peers  Japan is for more sense of belonging with their peers than individual basis  NA= performance based  Japan=social promotion There is a sensitive period for learning culture  Ability to learn new language diminish with age  Have all 150 phonemes at birth, but lose them due to culture  Study on jap kids moving to US, if move before 9, will be Americanized, but if move after 15, will have hard time acquiring new culture Cultural difference become more pronounced with age  Indians say more situational attributions  Americans show more personal attributions  If age 8 kids asked about the story, they give similar answers The self-concept varies across cultures  Collectivistic culture vs. individualistic culture  If sense of self is identified with attributes that are characteristics within you, like traits and attitudes, then self concept should be consistent across situations  If self concept is identified with roles and relationships that you have with others, then self concept should vary depending on what roles and relationships are important in a given situation  Write 20 sentences describing themselves  Jap participants showed various answes depending on where they wrote them (in prof office, in group, by themselves…)  American participants gave the same answers no matter where they were  View beliefs to determine behaviour (US)  View behaviour to determine beliefs of others and to fit social norm (East asian)  Postdecisional dissonance in westerners not in easterner when making decision for themselves  Easterners do show dissonance when making decision for others What happens to people’s sense of self when they move to a different culture? Acculturation requires significant and often stress adjustment  Acculturation is process which people migrate to and come to learn a culture different from their own  U shaped curve:  first few months is exciting (honey moon stage)  6-18 months develop negative view toward new culture (crisis or culture shock stage)  After is called (adjustment stage)  Important in determining acculturative success is cultural distance: different between two cultures in overall ways of life  Smaller difference, easier the acculturation process  Cultural fit is the degree to which an individual’s values and personality are similar to the dominant cultural values in the host culture, higher fit less problems, looking at extraversion, and personality and values Psychological processes change with acculturation  Higher self-esteem in western countries  Lower self-esteem in eastern countries People from distinct cultural backgrounds often face discrimination Multicultural people can switch between different selves  Frame-switching: shifting of thoughts and behaviours to those appropriate for a given cultural context  Prime people with Chinese thoughts or western thoughts, HK people had both thoughts  Chinese thoughts likely point towards external, situational factors as in collectivistic cultures  American thoughts are more individual non-situational How does culture affect how we think and behave? Cultures differ in analytical and holistic thinking  Dog, carrot, rabbit  Chinese group carrot and rabbit together  American groups dog and rabbit together  Taxonomic categorization strategy: group together based on perceived similarities of attributes in Americans  Thematic categorization: based on perceived relationships among them  This shows independent and interdependent view of self think about the world  Analytic thinking: focus on object and their attributes, independent objects  Holistic thinking: orientation to context as a whole, attention to relations among objects  Analytic thinking more common in indiv cultures, holistic thinking more common in collectivistic cultures  Pg 686 caribou pic, with new background, jap less likel
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