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Chapter 8

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University of Toronto St. George
Michael Inzlicht

C HAPTER 8 Gender stereotypes Cross cultural consensus Measurement of gender stereotypes Bipolar assumption lay belief of opposition Limits when we assume binary Dualistic view  people can have agentic (instrumental and independent ‘doing things’) and communal traits Agentic typically male Communal typically female People can have positive view of women but negative view of equal rights Men may react badly to power threats Origin of gender stereotypes Religion Monotheistic religions teach inferiority Search Learning Shaped by environment and parents Differential reinforcement Model behaviour Bandura boys and girls get aggressive when they see an adult model that behaviour As we get older, gender gets more rigid Cultural Institutions Media + society influence Cartoons have more feminists now Ads invoke sexism imagery Men and women have traditional labour roles in the household Normative and informational influence Women = attractive = positive emotions = you want to buy things Men= agentic women = periphery Facism: greater facial prominence of depictions of men in the media vs. women Subjects in facially prominent photos were seen as more intelligent When women see traditional photos they are less likely to report interest in political participation Women also wrote more communal based essays than men when shows traditional photos Cognitive processes can be disrupted/eliminated by exposing the individual to counter stereotype info Evolution vs. social roles Differences in male and female behaviour are adaptations Social roles theory  3 tenets p 214 Power Patriarchal structure Power differential Adopt power ideologies to enforce structure Descriptive stereotypes ( how think/feel) Prescriptive stereotypes ( how you should think/feel. Even more limiting) Grill found prescriptive gender stereotypes predicted sexism and this type of stereotyping is resistanct to behavioural information that undercuts descriptive stereotypes Cognitive processes can be disrupted/eliminated by exposing the individuals to counter stereotype information Accuracy of Gender stereotypes Emotionally different Are women just allowed to express more? Men use internal cues to determine emotional state Women use external cues No difference in terms of what they feel We exaggerate gender stereotypes Good enough judgments Sexist Language Generic masculine terms When a job posting has more pronouns that are male, female applicant
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