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Dwayne Pare

PSYB57 Ch-1 History Wilhelm Wundt and Titchener are notable the founders of cognitive-experimental psychology Introspection - the method to "look within", observe and record the content of our own mental lives and sequences of our own experience. Introspection could not be casual - needed training: Vocabulary to describe what observed Be careful and as complete as possible Report on experienced with minimum interpretation Introspection tells nothing about unconscious mind, hence became test to study conscious mind only • No way to understand how we can recall things like our phone numbers on top of our heads. Steps for learning takes place out of our awareness into unconscious mind • Also, there was no way to test whether observations are right or not. Because what's going on in one's mind, only he-she can experience but there is no real way to actually look into mind • Need objective raw data, so evidence can be inspected against others Behaviorism - principles concerned with how behavior changes in response to different configurations of stimuli (stimulus as rewards and punishments) - sought to avoid mentalist terms Observe one’s actions every day and behaviors produced by those actions or stimuli (objects), which are measurable, recordable and physical events - establish learning history. Beliefs, goals, wishes, expectations - measure these by introspection • Requires the person to stay still in one movement - not talk about mental entities such as beliefs, memories, etc. • Hence, behaviorism also became unsuccessful method to test mind because people were literally guided to explain how they feel and interpret, rather than any voluntary actions/behaviors Transcendental method - a type of theory proposed by Immanuel Kant - first observe effects or consequences of a process and then ask, What must process have been in order to bring about these effects? • First do the experiment to learn the mental mind and then come up with hypothesis to predict what must have happened. To reach the exact conclusions, we can alter and vary the experiments • Behaviorism showed we need to study mental processes and these mental processes cannot be observed directly, introspection showed that. Hence, transcendental method is a method that provides the study indirectly - invisible processes produce visible consequences. • Hypothesis is tested by collecting more date. If data matches hypothesis created, it leads to conclusion. Else, creation of new hypothesis is required. Working memory - memory that we use for information that we are actively working on. • Holds information in easily accessible form - information is closely available for me to speak and at fingertips to type • Memory size is relati
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