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Psych ch-5.docx

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Dwayne Pare

Psych ch-5 3/5/2013 11:32:00 AM Acquisition – process of gaining info and placing it into memory Storage – hold onto acquired info in memory until info is needed Retrieval – locate info in storage and bring it into active use Route into memory:- Information processing – is process in which mental events such as learning, remembering and deciding involves large number of discrete steps Modal model – in this modal, working memory serves as both storage and loading site for long- term memory storage/warehouse.  Info reaches working memory through perception or drawn back from long-term store  Once in working memory –either further process or it recycle it  Info first arrives in sensory memory, iconic-visual, echoic-audio; Explain working memory in detail. Working memory is functional memory, ideas or thoughts are currently activated in this space Long term memory is space which contains all your knowledge and all beliefs and not thinking about at moment a. Working memory is limited in size, long-term is vast (has to be b/c it contains all knowledge about present events, life experiences from past) b. Getting info into working memory is easy – working on- c. Getting info out of working memory is easy too – holds ideas and thoughts right now, readily available. Finding info out of Long-term is effortful and slow (can fail) d. Contens of working memory are fragile – shift your thoughts to new topic, old topic ideas are lost. Long term is not connected to current focus, hence less fragile Free recall – report words in any order they choose to Primacy effect – remember the first few words on list Recency effect – remember the last few words on list Serial position – relationship between recall test, have U-shape, best recall primacy and recency effected words What produces this U-shape patter? Working memory has what we are currently thinking about, however is limited in size, holding 5-6 size words. Recency – no further input arrives to displace words. Working memory contents easy to retrieve due to recency effect. Long-term retrieval requires time and attention. Primacy helps working retrieval – by memory rehearsal as well – repeat first few words over and over again (a, a, a) then (a, b, a, b) and then (a, b, c, a, b, c). hence, first word gets repeated the most, the primacy effect takes place. Words in middle receive less attention. Early words have better chance of being transferred into LTM, hence primacy helps LTM while recency helps working memory. How recalling effect Working or LTM?  Recall eliminates recency. Delaying the recall has no effect. Slower list presentation should give more time to mind-rehearse but no influence on working memory because slowing improves only retention of pre-recency item but does not improve recency effect. Using more familiar or common words would help working memory to ease entry into long-term memory and help retrieval but slowing down helps nothing. Working memory: LTM vs. Working – size of two memories, ease of entry, ease of retrieval and working memory depends on current activity while LTM does not Digit span – way to measure holding capacity of working memory (in old times) – people read series of digits in span and repeat them back, until errors are made.  Ability to hold 7 + - 2 items, or 7 + - 2 chunks – unspecified quantity of info contained in each chunk, content of chunk depends on organizer. In terms of letter, its 7 syllables (chunks).  Cost attached – effort used in chunking, organizing info leaves less attention is available for reheasing these items but it creates more flexibility in working memory  Chunks group into larger chunk - Increase “apparent” memory span of working memory but not really because all this has improved chunking strategy (in modern times), hence uses operation span What is operation span? Modern procedure to measure working memory when its “working” – recall final words in sentences – limit defines WMC  Higher span, larger working memory – tasks that require to keep multiple ideas active at same time, so you can coordinate and integrate various bits of info  People with larger span, do better with coordination of different pieces of info – advantages – in test of reasoning, assessments of comprehension, SAT, etc. Larger WMC has less mind wander, more focused thoughts on “task” o Links tells for what purposes is it good to have WMC larger, when and how working memory is used o Link betw
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