Psych ch-5 3/5/2013 11:32:00 AM
Acquisition – process of gaining info and placing it into memory
Storage – hold onto acquired info in memory until info is needed
Retrieval – locate info in storage and bring it into active use
Route into memory:-
Information processing – is process in which mental events such as learning, remembering and
deciding involves large number of discrete steps
Modal model – in this modal, working memory serves as both storage and loading site for long-
term memory storage/warehouse.
Info reaches working memory through perception or drawn back from long-term store
Once in working memory –either further process or it recycle it
Info first arrives in sensory memory, iconic-visual, echoic-audio;
Explain working memory in detail.
Working memory is functional memory, ideas or thoughts are currently activated in this space
Long term memory is space which contains all your knowledge and all beliefs and not thinking
about at moment
a. Working memory is limited in size, long-term is vast (has to be b/c it contains all
knowledge about present events, life experiences from past)
b. Getting info into working memory is easy – working on-
c. Getting info out of working memory is easy too – holds ideas and thoughts right now,
readily available. Finding info out of Long-term is effortful and slow (can fail)
d. Contens of working memory are fragile – shift your thoughts to new topic, old topic
ideas are lost. Long term is not connected to current focus, hence less fragile
Free recall – report words in any order they choose to
Primacy effect – remember the first few words on list
Recency effect – remember the last few words on list
Serial position – relationship between recall test, have U-shape, best recall primacy and recency
What produces this U-shape patter?
Working memory has what we are currently thinking about, however is limited in
size, holding 5-6 size words. Recency – no further input arrives to displace words.
Working memory contents easy to retrieve due to recency effect. Long-term retrieval
requires time and attention. Primacy helps working retrieval – by memory rehearsal as well – repeat first few
words over and over again (a, a, a) then (a, b, a, b) and then (a, b, c, a, b, c). hence,
first word gets repeated the most, the primacy effect takes place. Words in middle
receive less attention.
Early words have better chance of being transferred into LTM, hence primacy helps
LTM while recency helps working memory.
How recalling effect Working or LTM?
Recall eliminates recency. Delaying the recall has no effect. Slower list presentation
should give more time to mind-rehearse but no influence on working memory
because slowing improves only retention of pre-recency item but does not improve
recency effect. Using more familiar or common words would help working memory
to ease entry into long-term memory and help retrieval but slowing down helps
LTM vs. Working – size of two memories, ease of entry, ease of retrieval and working memory
depends on current activity while LTM does not
Digit span – way to measure holding capacity of working memory (in old times) – people read
series of digits in span and repeat them back, until errors are made.
Ability to hold 7 + - 2 items, or 7 + - 2 chunks – unspecified quantity of info
contained in each chunk, content of chunk depends on organizer. In terms of letter,
its 7 syllables (chunks).
Cost attached – effort used in chunking, organizing info leaves less attention is
available for reheasing these items but it creates more flexibility in working memory
Chunks group into larger chunk - Increase “apparent” memory span of working
memory but not really because all this has improved chunking strategy (in modern
times), hence uses operation span
What is operation span?
Modern procedure to measure working memory when its “working” – recall final words in
sentences – limit defines WMC
Higher span, larger working memory – tasks that require to keep multiple ideas active
at same time, so you can coordinate and integrate various bits of info
People with larger span, do better with coordination of different pieces of info –
advantages – in test of reasoning, assessments of comprehension, SAT, etc. Larger
WMC has less mind wander, more focused thoughts on “task” o Links tells for what purposes is it good to have WMC larger, when and how
working memory is used
o Link betw