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PSYB57 Ch-9.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Dwayne Pare

Ch-9 psychology Organization of language: - Language use relies on consistent and well-defined patterns – individual words are used, words are put together into phrases - Language has structure – highest level – ideas are intended by speaker, or the ideas that listeners derives from input - Ideas are expressed in sentences – coherent sequences of words that express the intended meaning of speaker – sentences are turned into phrases, which in turn composed of words - Words are composed of morphemes – smallest language units that carry meaning – some units can stand alone (talk), while some can’t – those that can’t typically refers to particular objects, ideas or actions - Some morphemes get bound onto free morphemes and add information crucial for interpretation - Morphemes are conveyed by sounds called, phonemes – smallest unit of sounds that can serve to distinguish words in language – easily represented by letters of alphabet, some not – easily represented by letter of alphabet, some not – symbols correspond to actual sounds produced, independent of how those sounds are expressed in our alphabet - People can combine ad recombine units to produce novel utterances – assembling phones into brand-new morphemes or assembling words into brand-new phrases Phonology: - Noise is produced if airflow is interrupted or altered – allows humans to produce wide rage of different sounds - Within larynx, there are two flaps of muscular tissue called vocal folds/cords – it rapidly opened and closed and produces buzzing sort of vibration called voicing - sound is considered “voiced” if vocal cords are vibrating while sound is produced – if vocal fold start vibrating sometime after sound begins- voice-onset time – sound is considered unvoiced – “z” produces sound, “s” doesn’t - Sound can also be produced by narrowing air passageway within mouth – to produce sound of hissing, place tongue’s tip near roof of mouth. To produce “sh” sound – position tongue so it creates narrow gap further back in mouth, air rushing through this gap causes “sh” sound - Narrow gap at front – produces “f” sound – air rushes between bottom lip and top of teeth How to distinguish sounds? 1. According to airflow restriction called manner of production – way speaker obstructs flow of air out of lungs to produce a speech sound – can be full stopped (t,b) or continue to flow (f,v) – air is allowed to move through nose for some speech sounds, some not 2. Distinguish between sounds that are voiced – prodced with the vocal folds vibrating (v, z, n) are voiced, (f, s, t, k) are unvoiced 3. According to where the airflow is restricted – place of articulation – position at which speaker momentarily obstructs the flow of air out lungs to produce a speech sound. Ex. Sound of “b” is lips, “d” is created by tongue Categorization allows to describe any speech sound in terms of few simple features a. Specify manner of production: sound is produced with air moving through the mouth, not nose and with full interruption to flow of air b. Voicing “p” sound happens to be unvoiced c. Place of articulation Complexity of speech perception - Phonemes differ only in one production feature sound similar to each other, differ in multiple features, sound more different - Speech is fast. Sounds amplitudes are produced upon speaking, these amplitudes in the form of air-pressure changes that reach the ear - There are no markers, no gaps to indicate the boundaries between successive syllables or successive words – need to slice this stream into appropriate segments – called speech segmentation – process through which a stream of speech is sliced into its constituent words and within words, into constituent phonemes - We believe there are pauses between the words, and it’s these pauses that make the boundaries but its illusion, we just hear pauses. Also we cannot understand foreign language because we lack skill needed to segment the stream, unable to “supply” word-boundaries – that’s why speech in foreign language sound so fast. - Co-articulation – in producing speech, don’t utter one phoneme at a time, the phonemes overlap. Ex. While trying to produce sound “s” for soup, your mouth-ready to say vowel “o”, after “o”, mouth, tongue and lips ready to say p Aids to speech perception: - Need for segmentation in continuous speed, variations caused by Coarticulation and variation from speaker to speaker - Speech perception us not only receiving and identifying sounds – actively seek match between sound arriving ear and words existing in your vocabulary - Speech perception is guided by knowledge of a broader sort, relies on context in which word appears – phonemic restoration effect – pattern in which people hear phonemes that are actually not presented but are highly likely in that context. Ex. Legi*lature – context to figure out what word must have been, supply the missing word on their own (s) - Context is important for sound – show the words sliced, split out individual words – no context to guide, can’t recognize even half the words Categorical perception - Another benefit for speech perception – categorical perception – fact that you are much better in hearing the differences between category of sounds than you are hearing the variations within a category – highly sensitive to differ between “g” and “k” but not between “p” to another form of “p” - Graded-membership – test cases close to “ba” prototype should be identified as “ba”, as move away from this category, should be harder to categorize - Prediction – as sound become less and less ordinary (ba), less and less likely to perceive as (ba) – results – abrupt categorical boundary distinction between (ba) and (pa) rather than a smooth, gradual one - We don’t care for pronunciation, care only for meaning Combining phonemes- o Limited phonemes, combine them to form many morphemes, combine many morphemes to make words o Rules that govern the adjustments must occur when certain phonemes are uttered. For ex. Some words are written in plural with ending “s” but sounds “z” – choice depends on base noun ends – noun ends with voiced sound (z), noun ends with unvoiced sound (s) o Some words demands an object to sound fine, some demands anomalous Morphemes and words: - Speakers knows word’s sound – sequence of phonemes - make up the word - Literate culture – speaker generally knows the words’ orthography – sequence of letters that spell the world - Speaker also knows how to use the word within various phrases governed by the rules of syntax – also needs to know the meaning of word – must have semantic representation for the word to go with phonological representation Word meaning Word refers to word referent – meaning of word or phrase linked to word’s referent - know referent of “bird”, will know meaning of bird; know referent of ball, will know meaning of ball - Many words express single concepts, can understand word’s meaning only if understand the relevant concepts - knowing a word is knowing the relevant concept - Conceptual knowledge (ch-8) is complicated – apply to semantic knowledge Building new words: - New words don’t simply just arrive in language – language users know how to create variations on each word by adding the appropriate morphemes – allow to create entirely new words like wave to microwave - Generativity – capacity to create an endless series of new combinations, all built from same set of fundamental units – someone who “knows” English knows how to create new forms within the language, knows how to combine morphemes to create new words, adjust phonemes when they are put together into novel combinations Syntax: There are limits on which words are acceptable – limits are made by rules of There are limits on which words are acceptable – Limits are made by rules of syntax – rules governing the sequence of words in phrase or sentence – rules depends on meaning – Meaningful sequences are acc
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