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Ch 8.docx

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Ch8Some say babies negative expressions show only undifferentiated distress where others such as Izard argue that expressions of fear anger and sad can be seen earlyA more exacting criterion is that discrete emotions should only be inferred if a specific facial expression is made in the context of an appropriate elicitor o In the string pulling experiment 2 month olds showed more anger when their pulling no longer turned the music onfrustration3 kinds of frustrationo Extinctionloss of the stimulation o Partial reinforcementreduction in contingent stimulation o Noncontingency loss of stimulus control o In all conditions 45 month olds increased their arm movements and showed anger not sadcoded by MAXExperiment tested relation btw emotional expression to specific elicitor for 1012 month old 6 conditions Hypothesiseither playing peekaboo or a letting kid play with toy elicits happiness confronting a cliff or stranger elicits fear seein object vanish tachistoscope mirror or hiding toy and replacing with another elicits surprise o To conclude that discrete emotions exist 1predicted emotion should occur more often then nonpredicted expressionfear must occur more than surprise in response to cliff2predicted expression must be displayed more often in its appropriate circumstance then in nonpredicted eliciting circumstancefear must occur more in response to cliff than to object vanishing o Babies expressed happy fear met criteria least wide range surprised predicted seen more than nonpredicted onessurprised was elicited just as often by elicitors hypothesized to elicit fear and happy o In another study surprising even was greeted by bodily stillingunable to find surprised reactions in 514 monthsDistinct emotions may not be recognizable early in lifeeating sour candy shows sadness in childSome say that infants negative emotions are only of undifferentiated distress at diff intensity levelsdistress pain anger or blends of discrete expressions o AFFEXhigh intensitydistress pain mediumangerlowsadnessWhen making negative emotions infants usually contract their orbicularis oculi muscles and close eyesAccording to AFFEX only diff btw coding of distress pain and anger is anger has eyes openEmotions develop as dynamic selforganizing systems o Neurophysiological programs dont come genetically specified as ready assembled packages Such packages do occur but they are constructed during early life from lower level genetically derived components which are formed into distinct structures by interaction among the components and by interaction of babies with other ppl o Related to chaos theorybutterfly that flaps its wings in Brazil might start tornado in texas
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