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Ch 10.docx

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University of Toronto St. George

Ch. 10  Muybridge had damaged orbitofrontal cortex. People lack judgement and no longer rational.  Sartre- magical transformation by the emotions of how we see the world. This is reflected in the many aphorisms that capture the effects of emotion upon cognition: we see the world through “jaundiced eyes” or “rose colored glasses.” When angry, afraid, or in love we construe the world in different lights.  Epicureans and stoics- to lead a good life, emotions should be extirpated altogether  Many philosophers assumed that emotions are lower, less sophisticated, more primitive ways of perceiving the world, especially when juxtaposed with loftier forms of reason. Human society is better off when the more primitive passions are reigned in by rational thought. o Exception was hume-“reason is and ought to be the slave of passion”  Emotions are often the product of rather complex beliefs about real events in the world  3 meanings of whether emotions can be rational 1)whether the emotions are based on substantive beliefs-do beliefs and appraisals supporting our emotions correspond to actual events in the world 2)whether emotions help individuals function effectively in the social world 3) do emotions guide cognitive processes like perception,attention, memory, and judgement in organized way or do they disrupt cognitive processes  Cognitive science-in 1960s, idea that emotions guide cognitive processes in rational, adaptive, fashion  Simon-emotions set priorities among diff goals-complex organisms like humans. Other animals use reflex  The notion that emotions signal conflict, and redirect the individuals action was a f focus of classical greek dramas, some of aristotles work, and much of freuds.  Oatley-emotions involved two different kinds of signaling in the nervous system o Signal that occurs automatically and comes from primary appraisal. It is old, simple, does carry specific info about objects in enviro. Its organizational, because it simply sets the brain into a particular mode of organization, or readiness, along with urge to act in line to this readiness, specific to the particular basic emotion (happy, sad, fear etc). it is a quick, automatic guess about the kind of thing to do next. Emotional priming operates at this automatic unconscious level. It is resistant to attributional interventions o Signal that derives from secondary appraisal. It is informational. The info it carries enables us to make mental models of the events and their possible causes and implications.  Normally the organizational and informational signals occur together to produce an emotional feeling with a consciously known cause and object in order to respond to it  Sometimes a dissociation occurs (split brain patients) and it accounts for why we can sometimes have emotions with no objects, and how we can have psychoactive drugs like tranquilizers that change our emotional state without doing anything to the event of the world. It is also how we can know some things in the world without caring about them.  Ex: fear. Organizational=makes ready physiological mechanisms for fight or flight, looks for signs of danger or safety. Informational=the thing we are frightened of-sometimes its insubstantial  3 perspectives on the effects of emotions on cognitive functioning. 1)emotion congruence 2)Feelings as information 3) processing style  Emotion congruence-moods and emotions are associative networks in the mind o When u experience an emotion, all of the associations of that emotion become more accessible and available for use in different judgments  Bower’s emotion congruence account-we should be better able to learn material that is congruent with our current emotion, because that material is more extensively integrated into active memory structures, and more easily retrieved at the time of recall o Bower-study of ppls memories before 15 yrs. Number of items recalled by participants when a happy or sad mood was induced by hypnosis. In a happy mood, they remembered more memories they classified as pleasant. In a sad mood, they recalled slightly more unpleasant memories.  Mood dependent effects do occur in memory and other cognitive functions, but not in terms of a mechanism that affects all processes of perception and memory in the same way as bower proposed. Effects depend on the tasks that participants perform, on the moods that are induced, and on who the participants are  Affect Infusion Model- Forgas, emotions infuse into a cognitive task, and influence memory and judgment depending on the extent to which the task depends on complex and constructive processing, or on matters that depart from prototypes  Feelings as information-assumes that emotions themselves are informative when we make judgments. 2 assumptions. 1)emotions provide us with a rapid signal triggered by something in our enviro. 2) many of the judgments that we make are often too complex to review all the relevant evidence.  Emotions are heuristics, guesses that work better than chance a lot of time, short cuts to making judgments or taking action o Ex: predicted that only those participants who haven’t been asked about weather would use their current feelings as heuristics, or short cut strategies for making the complex judgment of how satisfied they were. Those who were called on a sunny day would report greater life satisfaction than ppl called on gloomy day o Ppl will use their emotions as heuristics in making judgements, except when they attribute those feelings to a specific source. Study shows how we use our current feelings to make judgments of various kinds  Diff emotions promote diff processing styles. Suggests that when you feel guilty or angry, grateful or enthusiastic, for example, that you are engaging in qualitatively different forms of reasoning, of considering and weighing evidence, and drawing conclusions  Positive mood facilitates use of already existing knowledge structures, like heuristics and stereotypes while negative moods (sad not angry) facilitate more analytical thought and careful attention to situational details.  Stereotypes are automatic and more likely used when one is experiencing moods and emotions that make one less systematic, such as happiness or anger  Isen-happiness prompts ppl to think in ways that are flexible and creative. The happy mood seems to enable the imagination to explore further with fewer constraints and assumptions o Fredrickson-overarching function of positive emotions is to broaden and build our resources. Positive emotions broaden our thought repertoires, they enable more creative and flexible thought, to aid the individual in forming important bonds and exploring the enviro. Positive emotions also help us build interpersonal resources, by motivating us to approach others, to cooperate, to express affection, and build bonds  Niedenthal/Setterlund-happiness and sadness have emotion-congruent effects upon selective perception. Induced happy/sad mood by giving earphones and playing music. Did a lexical decision task. (word/nonword). Found that music did put ppl into happy or sad moods. Happy music = happy words but effects did not extend to positive or negative words that were unrelated to the specific emotions of happiness or sadness. o Our current moods and feelings lead us to selectively perceive emotion-congruent objects and events-explains why emotions and moods can persist-built in  Emotions affect attention. Anxiety narrows attention. When ppl are fearful or anxious they focus mainly on what they are afraid of, or on safety from this thing and they disregard everything else o Ex: when the dot appears in the po
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