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University of Toronto St. George

4/23/2010 9:00:00 AM Depression  Aka affective disorder  Identify diminution of pleasurable goal achievement as a principal emotional component of depression  A major depressive episode is diagnosed when for at least two weeks the sufferer is unbearable sad or depressed or has lost pleasure in nearly all activities along with at least 4 other symptoms that include: being unable to sleep, being slowed down in one’s actions, lack of energy to do ordinary things, inability to concentrate, feelings of worthlessness or guilt, and thoughts or plans of suicide Anxiety  When someone has a nervous breakdown, usually he or she suffers a major depressive episode with or without an accompanying anxiety disorder Psychiatric Epidemiology  Similarly in psychiatry, the discovery of drugs for disorders has been important but more important will be prevention  Psychiatric epidemiology was slow to take its place alongside the epidemiology of physical medicine, mainly because it was a first difficult to agree on criteria for diagnosis of disorders, and because reliable psychological assessments had not been developed  Among the striking findings of this and of similar studies such as that of Robins and Regier was that depression and anxiety states were nearly twice as common in women as in men  21% of adult women have had an episode of major depression at some time in their life, as compared to 13% of men  depression is recognized by the World Health Organization as the single most important chronic condition in the middle years of life in terms of its economic impact for instance in employment and the impairment of relationships women were also much more likely than men to have had one of the 5 kinds of anxiety disorder diagnosed in the study  although there is no gender difference in prevalence of depression in childhood, in adolescence the difference becomes large and stays so  found that in india, Zimbabwe, chile and Brazil being female being poor and having little education were associated with depres
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