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Ch 9.docx

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University of Toronto St. George

Ch 9  2 fundamental dimensions to human social life-love and strife(power) o Freud saw life in terms of sexuality and death o Recent theorists speak of cooperation, affiliation, and prosocial behaviour on one hand and competition, dominance, and antisocial behaviour on the other o In child studies, its love and control o In anthropology, intimacy and superordination-subordination o Semantic analyses and social interaction studies, evaluation (goodness) and potency  Emotions like love, compassion, and gratitude on important for cooperative behaviour  Lorenz-foremost figure in modern ethology. Aggression was a “big drive” that resembles a horse needing daily exercise to stable energy. Felt aggression is an innate drive like hunger. Aggression tends to run out of control because technology and bureaucracy hold back humans from reconciliation and peace making  Ardrey-“territorial imperative”-we are programmed for aggression in defense of territories ranging from a seat on the bus to a nation.  3 social motivations: attachment, affiliation (warmth or affection), assertion (power)-rise in social hierarchy and to resist challenges from those who would diminish us-competition and conflict motivation  We can think of social emotions as managing social goals, and moving us in a 3d space of the 3 primary social motivations  Typical positive emotions associated with the presence of an attachment figure are trust, comfort, and reassurance, while loss of such a figure produces anxiety and distress o Attachment=trust or anxiety  Typical positive emotions associated with affiliation are affection, warmth, and liking, whereas loss of someone to who one felt affection produces sadness and grieving o Affiliation= affection or sadness  Typical emotion of assertion is anger, to win or maintain status, whereas loss of status is accompanied by shame or embarrassment and other emotions of deference. o Assertion=anger or shame  Some goals like curiosity and self-preservation in the face of physical dangers are not social at all  Bowlby-use of mother as a secure base for exploration  Ainsworth-infants developed their sense of trust from parents being sensitive and responsive o Also important are affiliation, warmth, and affection  Although American mothers were warmer, their responsiveness to childrens distress was less than Ugandan mothers  System of affiliation and warmth is built on positive reward and is closely associated with touch  Emotions are evaluations, or appraisals, of events that affect different kinds of social goals  Emotions are not solely determined by appraisals of events. Emotions are reappraised, so that the emotions become amalgams of what started them and the social negotiations they have occasioned  Emotions create social relationships. An angry expression is a declaration of conflict. Such emotions aren’t just states of readiness. They are commitments. We commit ourselves, for a time at least, to the relationship for which the emotion sets the frame.  Emotions signal our goals, and others can then be responsive to them  Sexual love needs combo of attachment and affiliation. Parenting needs attachment, affiliation and assertion.  Affectional bond-in long term love two ppl cooperate to accomplish together what they could not do alone  Bowlby’s idea was that the attachment relationship of infancy creates a template for later intimate relationships  Darwin said that the infant pattern of holding and being held is elaborated in adult caressing.  Freud-the romantic notion that adult love is the return to the eden of blissful merging with one orginal love, ones mother. Adult romantic love and sexuality, according to this, is an elaboration upon universal, evolved, behavioural patterns of earlier life  Shaver-adult love depends on 3 systems: attachment, caregiving of infants by parents, and the sexual relating of reproduction. Argue that attachment and caregiving both carry forward experiences from infancy to adult relating  Fleming-studied maternal caregiving. Studied rats maternal behaviour toward infants o When infant rats suckle, the mothers assume a crouching posture over them o If infants get out of the nest, they make ultrasonic squeaks and mothers retrieve them o Mothers lick infants, on and around the ano-genital region o Experience of being licked and nurses more found to affect gene expression, which in turn had a calming effect on responses to stress of the offspring in their adulthood o Mothers who received more affection when they were infant spend more time cuddling and kissing their babies. o Human mothers can raise children perfectly successfully without being particularly affectionate to them, but their childrens ability to show affection in their later life, and perhaps their interest in affection, depends on having been objects of affection to their parents  Primary maternal preoccupation-which sustains the devotion the parents need for a baby to flourish  Adoptive parents who haven’t had early contact make just as good and loving mothers and fathers as biological parents. Fathers who were present at child birth showed more intense attachment to their infants early on  male provisioning hypothesis-lovejoy, critical evolutionary moved occurred when humans started to walk upright, when with the formation of specialized feet infants could no long cling to their mothers as ape babies do, so that mother must devote more resources to tending them. Males started to make a contribution to the rearing of specific infants.  Pair bonding-male has a good chance of knowing that the child to whose upbringing he contributes bears his genes-exclusive sexual attention. Male gives resources to help child rearing  Women choose males on the basis of their predicted investment in parenting and not from indicators of genetic prowess. Men choose women on their ability to rear children and reproduction readiness  Studies suggest that wheras some facets of sexuality are served by an intense emotion we might call sexual desire, other facets such as enduring commitment one feels are guided by emotions of romantic love. These two states have different nonverbal displays which incorporate many of the affiliative-affectionate behaviours seen btw parent and child (kiss,smile, hug, touch). Only romantic, or sexual love is associated with the release of oxytocin, which itself promotes devotion and monogamy  Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse-negative behaviours most damaging to relationships o Criticism-more critical and find fault with partners have less satisfying marriages o Defensiveness o Stonewalling-resisting dealing with problems o Contempt for partner-most toxic to relationships-denial of the other persons right to take part in the relationship at all  Anger can bring beneficial change-to be angry with someone involves a commitment to seeing an argument through to some end o Functions in long term relationships to allow participants to readjust something i
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