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Chapter 12

PSY100 Chapter 12

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University of Toronto St. George
Dan Dolderman

Chapter 12 - Social Psychology Social psychology: concerned with how people influence other people’s thoughts, feelings and actions Attitudes: the evaluation of objects, events or ideas • Zajonc- noted that the more a person is exposed to something, therefore greater familiarity with it, the more likely a person is to develop positive attitudes about the item= mere exposure effect • Explains why we prefer reversed images of ourselves, what we frequently see in mirror • Attitudes are shaped through socialization • Can be conditioned, classical conditioning (positive attitudes about deodorant that Brad pit is endorsing), operant conditioning (reinforcement= better grades, more positive attitudes about school) Attitudes predict behaviour • The stronger, more personally relevant, and specific the attitude, more likely to predict behaviour, be consistent over time, be resistant to change • Attitude accessibility: ease at which person can retrieve memories related to an attitude • Fazio showed that easily activated attitudes, the more likely to predict behaviour, be consistent over time, be resistant to change • Explicit attitudes: attitutes you know about and can report to other people (I like bowling) • Implicit attitudes: influence feeligns and behaviours at unconscious level • Assess them from memory quickly, little conscious effort or control • Ex: purchase brad pitt deodorant w/o remembering commercial Implicit Association Test • Reaction time test that can identify implicit attitudes • Measures how quickly we associate concepts or objects with positive or negative words • ex: Female= bad or female=good indicates implicit attitude towards females Leon Festinger- Cognitive Dissonance • occurs when there is a contradiction between 2 attitudes or between an attitude and a behaviour • dissonance causes anxiety and tension, and therefore motivates people to reduce the dissonance by changing attitudes or behaviours • ex: choosing university causes dissonance • post decisional dissonance: take both schools, focusing on one’s school’s positive aspects (chosen school) and other school’s negative aspects • Festinger’s Dissonance Study • Participants paid either $1 -$20 to mislead fellow participant, later asked how worthwhile and enjoyable task had actually been • Those paid 1$ rated the task much more favorable than those paid $20 • Those paid 1$ had insufficient monetary justification for lying= cognitive dissonance therefore to justify why they went along with the lie, they changed their attitudes about performing the dull task “it was fun” • Those paid 20$, enough monetary justification for lying, no cognitive dissonance “it was boring” * shows that 1 way to change attitudes tis to change behaviours first • When players go through pain, embarrassment, or discomfort to join group (initiation), they experience dissonance • Resolve dissonance/justify their actions by inflating the importance of the group and their commitment to it Elaboration likelihood model- Perry & Cacioppo • Persuasion works via 2 routes 1. central route: people motivated to pay attention to arguments, consider all info, use rational cognitive processes- leads to strong attitudes over time resistant to change 2. peripheral route: people not motivated, minimally process message, leads to impulsive action, attitude changes reflect the presence or absence of shallow peripheral cues • Cues that influence message’s persuasiveness: • Source: Attractive and credible sources most persuasive • Content: strong arguments that appeal to our emotions most persuasive • Receiver: more receives persuasive source as similar to themselves= more persuasive What we use to make impressions of others Non-verbal behaviour: facial expressions, gestures, mannerisms, movemetns by which one communicates with others 1. Facial expressions – face communicates emotional state, interest, distrust, etc. 2. non-verbal behaviour/body language • Ambady & Rosenthal- thin slices of behaviour- people can make accurate judgments based on only a few seconds of observations • Ex: seeing videos of judges talking to juries, can use judges body language to predict whether judge believes person is guilty or not • Gait also provides information about affective state • Study found that after watching 10sec clip of figural outline no face, participants correctly guessed figure’s sexual orientation at a rate better than chance 3 Attributions: people’s causal explanations for events or actions, including other people’s behaviour • Fulfills our basic needs for order and predictability- anticipate future events Just word hypothesis: assume that victims did something to deserve what happened to them ex: person’s fault for getting raped Attributional dimensions (Heider) • Personal attributions/ internal of dispositional attributions: explanations that refer to things within people, such as abilities, traits, moods, or effort • Situations attributions/external attributions: refer to outside events, weather, luck, accidents, actions of others • Weiner suggested that attributions can also vary in terms of stable/unstable, controllable/uncontrollable Ex: bad weather: situational/external, unstable, uncontrollable Attributional bias • error/correspondence bias: tendency to overemphasize personal factors and underestimate situational factors in explaining behaviour • Idea originated by Edward Jones- correspondence bias- emphasizing that people expect other’s behaviours to correspond with their own beliefs and personalities • Actor/observer discrepancy: correspondence bias + fundamental attribution error (ex: attribute our lateness to situational factors, colleague lazy, lack of organization) • Eastern cultures tend to use both personal and situational factors when making behavioural attributions vs. Westerners • Still favor personal attributions vs. situational info fundamental attribution error universal across all cultures Stereotypes • Cognitive schemas that allow for easy, fast processing of info about people based on their memberships in certain groups • Stereotypes themselves are neutral and simply simplify cognitive processing • Stereotypes guide attention toward info that confirms the stereotype and away from disconfirming evidence • Memories also biased by stereotypes • When encountering someone that doesn’t fit stereotype= exception to rule vs. invalidate stereotype= subtyping Stereotypes Prejudice discrimination Ingroup: groups that we belong to, more strongly identify with • Ingroup favouritism: people will more likely distribute resources, do favours, forgive in- group members vs. outgroup members • Tajfel & Turner- randomly assigned particpants into 2 groups on basis of meaningless criteria- still gave ingroup members more money prevented outgroup members from getting money (may have evolutionary significance) Outgroup: groups that we don’t belong to • Outgroup homogeneity effect: people tend to view outgroup members as less varied that ingroup members (U of T students more diverse, Queen students all same) Stereotypes and perception • Payne showed picture of various objects to white participants and asked them to classify objects as gun or tools as fast as possible • Right before, showed picture of either white or black guy • Priming black face led participants to identify guns more quickly and to mistake tools for guns Inhibiting stereotypes • Patricia Devine points out that people can override the stereotypes that they hold and act in non-discriminatory ways • Requires self-regulation -Show black faces activates amygdala (detects threat) but initial reaction can be overridden by frontal lobes • Nilanjana, Dasgupta, Greenwald showed that priming pictures of admired black individuals (Michael Jordan) produced more favorable attitudes towards blacks on the IAT Cooperation can reduce prejudice • Sherif study • Took 22 boys to camp, split them into 2 groups, isolated them, got them to compete against each other resulted in tension, hostility • Discovered that hostility can be undone by cooperative task “among strangers, competition and isolation create enemies. Among enemies, co-operation created friends” Aronson’s Jigsaw Classroom • Programs that most successfully bring groups together inolve person-to person interaction • Students work together in mixed race or mixed- sex groups- all, expert in 1thing • All geography experts meet with other geo experts, master material bring info back to group (2-fold cooperation) Power of the social situation is much greater than most people believe Zimbardo- “difficult to remain a cucumber while those around you become pickles” Zajonc’s social facilitation theory • Mere presence of others leads to increased arousal which favors dominant response • For simple
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