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Chapter 12

PSY 100 chapter 12.docx

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Dan Dolderman

PSY100 -CHAPTER 12  abuse at Abu Ghraib prison in iraq  --> normal people caught up in overwhelming situation that shapes their actions  Male stanford students play role of prisoners and guards in mock prison  within days guards became brutal and sadistic  necessay to stop study after 6 days b/c too violent  showed how fast normal students could be transformed into the social roles they were playing  social psychology = how people influence other peoples thoughts, feelings and actions  social context = powerful  attitudes = evaluation of objects, events or ideas ---> central to social psy (shaped by social context)  develop negative attitudes about new objects faster than positive attitudes  greater exposure to item = more positive attitude to it (mere exposure effect)  advertising use classical conditioning = condition attitudes  operant conditioning also shapes attitudes (rewarded everytime study = positive attitude toward studying)  attitudes shaped by socialization - teachers, media etc. guide our attitudes.  stronger and more personally relevant attitude = more likely to predict behaviour  more specific attitude = more predictive it is  attitudes formed from direct experience = predict behaviour better  attitude accessibility = ease at which person retrieve memories related to an attitude  easily activated attitudes = more stable, predictive of behaviour and resistant to change  Explicit attitude: attitudes you know about and can report to other people  Implicit attitudes: influence our feelings and behaviour at unconscious level ---> shape behaviour w/out awareness  implicit association test = reaction time test = identify implicit attitudes ---> how quickly associate concepts or words with positive/ negative words.  Cognitive Dissonance theory: contradiction between two attitudes or between an attitude and a behaviour. ----> Leon Festinger ex. when people smoke eventhough they know smoking can kill them  postdecisional dissonance (forces to look at positive aspects of chosen school and negative of other)= have positive attitudes about two options but can only choose one = dissonance  Dissonance experiment  perform very boring task ---> lie to next participants saying it is very interesting  payed either $1 or $20  those payed $1 rated task as being more favourable as opposed to those payed $20  those paid $1 = insufficient monetary justification for lying = change their attitudes about performing the dull experimental task  those paid $20 = no dissonance = didn't change attitudes  justifying effort - hazing at universities  ---> go through dissonance when put ourselves through pain / uncomfort  ^ resolve dissonance by inflating the importance of the group  two groups of women - one say very sexual words, other = say mild words  when shown video of animals mating---> women that had to say very sexual words found it more interessting  explains why people who leave families to join cults = more willing to die than leave group -- -> believe if they have to go through so much pain to be part = group must be special  Persuasion: active and conscious effort to change attitudes through transmission of a message  Elaboration likelihood model: theory of how persuasion messages lead to attitude changes  central route: people pay attention to arguments, consider all information, use rational cognitive processes = strong attitudes---> last and resistant to change  peripheral route: minimally process message = more impulsive action - purchase product b/c celebrity endorsed  cues that influence persuasion: source, content, receiver  Nonverbal behaviour (body language): facial expressions, gestures, movements.  westerners: making eye contact = more truthfull/ friendly  Native americans ---> making eye contact = disrespectful  thin slices of behaviour ----> people make accurate judgements based on few seconds of observation  judges nonverbal behaviour influences juries decision  gait = how people walk = information about affective state  attributions: peoples causal explanations for why events or actions occur  just world hypothesis ---> make attrributions for why senseless things occur ---> that girl deserved to get raped  fritz heider = originator of attribution theory (Attributional dimensions)  personal attributions (internal/ dispositional): explanations= refer to internal characteristics ---> abilities, traits, mood  situational attributions: explanations ---> external events - weather, luck, accidents  depressed people attribute failure to own incompetance  people not depressed ---> attribute failures to temporary aspects of situations (uncontrollable, unstable)  fundamental attribution error (correspondance bias): tendency to overemphasize personal factors and underestimate situational factors in explaining behaviour  shows
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