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Textbook Notes – Week 4.pdf

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Ashley Waggoner Denton

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PSY  100     Textbook  Notes  –  Week  4     Ch.  10:  pp.  439  –  456,  (stress)   Ch.  14:  pp.  629  –  674,  (mental  illness)     Can  Psychosocial  Factors  Affect  Health?     • Health  Psychology:  The  field  of  psychological  science  concerned  with  the   events  that  affect  physical  well-­‐being   • Promotes  health  and  well-­‐being,  instead  of  thinking  of  health  merely  as  the   absence  of  disease   • Well-­‐being:  A  positive  state  that  includes  striving  for  optimal  health  and  life   satisfaction     The  Biopsychosocial  Model  of  Health  Incorporates  Multiple  Perspectives  for   Understanding  and  Improving  Health     • Biopsychosocial  model:  A  model  of  health  that  integrates  the  effects  of   biological,  behavioral,  and  social  factors  on  health  and  illness   o Biological  Factors:    Genetic  predispositions    Exposure  to  germs,  brain  and  other  nervous  system   development   o Psychological  Factors:    Thoughts/actions    Lifestyles    Stress    Health  beliefs   o Social  Factors:    Environments    Cultural  influences    Family  relationships      Social  support   • Traditional  medical  models  had  the  patient  as  the  passive  participants,   whereas  in  the  approach  taken  by  health  psychologists,  the  patient  individual   thoughts,  feelings,  and  behaviours  are  central  to  understanding  and   improving  health     Behaviour  Contributes  to  the  Leading  Causes  of  Death     • Placebo  Effect:  A  drug  or  treatment,  unrelated  to  the  particular  problem  of   the  person  who  receives  it,  may  make  the  recipient  feel  better  because  the   person  believes  the  drug  or  treatment  is  effective   o Good  example  of  the  biopsychosocial  model:    BELIEF  that  a  medication  will  work,  (psychological),     PSY  100      Affects  the  BODY  in  ways  similar  to  those  of  medications,  or   treatments  with  known  BIOLOGICAL  effects,  (biological).      These  effects  occur  within  a  CONTEXT  that  determines  when   and  how  much  the  body  will  respond  to  the  placebo,  (social).     STRESS:     • Stress:  A  pattern  of  behavioural,  psychological,  and  physiological  responses   to  events  that  match  or  exceed  an  organism’s  abilities  to  respond   o Eustress:  Stress  caused  by  positive  events   o Distress:  Stress  caused  by  negative  events   • Stressor:  An  environmental  event  of  stimulus  that  threatens  an  organism   • Coping  Response:  Any  response  an  organism  makes  to  avoid,  escape  from,   or  minimize  an  aversive  stimulus   • Hypothalamic-­‐pituitary-­‐adrenal,  (HPA),  axis:  The  biological  system   responsible  for  the  stress  response    Stressful  event    Brain    Hypothalamus,  (chemical  message)    Pituitary  Gland,  (hormones)    Adrenal  Gland,  (cortisol)       • General  adaptation  syndrome:  A  consistent  pattern  of  responses  to  stress   that  consists  of  three  stages:  alarm,  resistance,  and  exhaustion   o Alarm  Stage:    An  emergency  reaction  that  prepares  the  body  to  fight  or  flee    Physiological  responses  are  aimed  at  boosting  physical  abilities   while  reducing  activities  that  make  the  organism  vulnerable  to   infection  after  injury   o Resistance  Stage:    Defenses  prepare  for  a  longer,  sustained  attack  against  the   stressor;  immunity  to  infection  and  disease  increases   somewhat  as  the  body  maximizes  its  defenses   o Exhaustion  Stage:    A  variety  of  physiological  and  immune  systems  fail    Bodily  organs  that  were  already  weak  before  the  stress  are  the   first  to  fail   • Prolonged  exposure  to  stress  hormones,  such  as  cortisol,  negatively  affects   health   o Can  cause  high  blood  pressure,  cardiac  disease,  diabetes,  declining   sexual  interest,  and  dwarfism         PSY  100     • Type  A  Behaviour  Pattern:   o A  pattern  of  behaviour  characterized  by  competitiveness,   achievement  orientation,  aggressiveness,  hostility,  restlessness,   inability  to  relax,  and  impatience  with  other   o People  with  this  behaviour  pattern  are  much  more  likely  to  develop   coronary  disease   • Type  B  Behaviour  Pattern:   o A  pattern  of  behaviour  characterized  by  relaxed,  noncompetitive,   easygoing,  and  accommodating  behaviour.   o Less  likely  to  suffer  coronary  heart  problems     • Allostatic  load  theory  of  illness:     o When  people  are  continually  stressed,  they  are  unable  to  return  to   bodily  states  that  characterize  normal  stress  levels       MENTAL  ILLNESS:     How  Are  Psychological  Disorders  Conceptualized  and  Classified?     1. Does  the  behaviour  deviate  from  cultural  norms?   2. Is  the  behaviour  maladaptive?   3. Is  the  behaviour  causing  the  individual  personal  distress?     The  DSM  diagnoses  people  based  on  observable  symptoms  on  a  multiaxial  system.   The  Multiaxial  System  uses  five  different  axis:   1. Clinical  disorders   2. Mental  retardation  or  personality  disorders   3. Medical  conditions   4. Psychosocial  problems   5. Global  or  overall  assessment  of  how  well  the  person  is  function     • Neuropsychological  testing:  preform  tasks  that  require  an  ability  such  as   planning,  coordinating,  or  remembering   • Behavioural  testing:  observing  interactions  with  others  for  abnormalities   • Psychological  testing:  Assesses  a  broad  range  of  mental  disorders  and   general  mental  health   • Mental  Status  Exam:  Involves  behavioural  observations  that  evaluate  the   person  for  characteristics  such  as  personal  grooming,  ability  to  make  eye   contact,  tremors  or  twitches,  mood,  speech,  thought  content,  and  memory     • Dissociative  Identity  Disorder,  (DID):  The  occurrence  of  two  or  more   distinct  identities  in  the  same  individual   PSY  100     • Diathesis-­‐stress  model:  A  diagnostic  model  that  proposes  that  a  disorder   may  develop  when  an  underlying  vulnerability  is  coupled  with  a   precipitating  event   • Family  Systems  Model:  A  diagnostic  model  that  considers  symptoms  within   an  individual  as  indicating  problems  within  the  family   • Socio-­‐cultural  model:  A  diagnostic  model  that  views  psychopathology  as   the  result  of  the  interaction  between  individuals  and  their  cultures   • Cognitive-­‐behavioural  approach:  A  diagnostic  model  that  views   psychopathology  as  the  result  of  learned,  maladaptive  cognitions   • The  occurrence  and  prevalence  of  different  mental  disorders  varies  between   the  sexes.  Disorders  associated  with  internalizing  are  more  prevalent  in   females,  whereas  disorders  associated  with  externalizing  are  more  prevalent   in  males.   o Internalizing:  Characterized  by  negative  emotions  such  as  distress   and  fear   o Externalizing:  Characterized  by  disinhibition,  such  as  alcoholism  and   conduct  disorders   • Disorders  that  are  largely  biological  in  foundation  vary  little  across  cultures,   whereas  disorders  that  are  learned  in  a  context  vary  more  across  cultures.     • Culture-­‐bound  disorders  are  found  mainly  in  certain  regions  or  cultures     -­‐  -­‐  -­‐  -­‐  -­‐  -­‐  -­‐  -­‐  -­‐  -­‐  -­‐  -­‐  -­‐  -­‐  -­‐  -­‐  -­‐  -­‐  -­‐  -­‐  -­‐  -­‐  -­‐  -­‐  -­‐  -­‐  -­‐       • Anxiety  disorders  are  characterized  by  excessive  anxiety  in  the  absence  of   true  danger     •
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