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Chapter 13

PSY100 Chapter 13 Personality.docx

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Ashley Waggoner Denton

Chapter 13 Personality How have psychologists studied personality?  Gordon Allport: definition of personality: “the dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine his characteristic behaviour and though”  the notion of organization indicates that personality is not just a list of traits but a coherent whole  his definition stresses that personality causes people to have characteristic behaviours and thoughts and feelings; they do and think and feel things relatively consistently over time Psychodynamic Theories Emphasize Unconscious and Dynamic Processes  psychodynamic theory: Freudian theory that unconscious forces, such as wishes and motives, influence behaviour  Freud referred to these psychic forces as instincts defining them as mental representations arising out of biological or physical need  For ex. People satisfy the life instinct by following the pleasure principle, which directs people to seek pleasure and to avoid pain. The energy that drives the pleasure principle is the libido  Multiple forces can be in conflict, and Freud viewed such conflict as the essential cause of mental illness A Topographical Model of Mind  A topographical model , he proposed that the structure of the mind or its topography, is divided into three zones of mental awareness o At the conscious level, people are aware of their thoughts o The preconscious level consists of content that is not currently in awareness but that could be brought to awareness, it is roughly analogous to long-term memory o The unconscious level contains material that the mind cannot easily retrieve  Unconscious mind contains wishes, desires, and motives, and they are associated with conflict, anxiety, or paint; to protect the person from distress, they are not accessible  Much of human behaviour was influence by unconscious processes Development of Sexual Instincts  Psychosexual stage: according to freud, the developmental stages that correspond to pursuit of satisfaction of libidinal urges  libido is focuses on one of the erogenous zones: the mouth, the anus, or the genitals  the oral stage, lasts from birth to approx.. 18 months, during which time pleasure is sought through the mouth; hungry infants experience relief when they breastfeed and thus associate pleasure with sucking  from age 3 to 5, children enter the phallic stage, and direct their libidinal energies toward the genital  because the same-sex parent is thus considered a rival, children develop hostility toward that parent; in boys, this is known as the Oedipus complex; this theory was applicable to boys  latency stage: libidinal urges are suppressed or channeled into during schoolwork or building friendships  genital stage: adolescents and adults attain mature attitudes about sexuality and adulthood; libidinal urges are centered on capacity to reproduce and contribute to society  those fixated at the oral stage develop oral personalities; they continue to seek pleasure through the mouth, such as by smoking and are excessively needy  those fixated at the anal phase may have anal-retentive personalities, being stubborn and highly regulating; may arise from overly strict toilet training or excessive rule based child rearing Structural Model of Personality  id: in psychodynamic theory, the component of personality that is completely submerged in the unconscious and operates according o the pleasure principle  Superego: the internalization of societal and parental standards of conduct  Ego: the component of personality that tries to satisfy the wishes of the id while being responsive to the dictates of the superego o the ego operates according to the reality principle, which involves
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