Textbook Notes (363,264)
Canada (158,281)
Psychology (2,948)
PSY100H1 (1,804)

Textbook Notes - Week 10.docx

26 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto St. George
Ashley Waggoner Denton

PSY 100 Textbook Notes – Week 10 Treating Psychological Disorders: pp. 679 – 723 Intelligence: pp. 366 – 385 Positive Psychology: pp. 468 – 477 Assessing Personality: pp. 594 – 599 Treating Psychological Disorders: Ch. 15: pp. 679 – 723 HOW ARE PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS TREATED?  Psychotherapy: The generic name given to formal psychological treatment  Biological Therapies: Treatment based on medical approaches to illness and to disease o Psychopharmacology is the use of medications that affect brain or body functions o Sometimes biological therapies long-term success may require the person to continue treatment indefinitely Psychotherapy Is Based on Psychological Principles PSYCHODYNAMIC THERAPY FOCUSES ON INSIGHT  Insight: A goal of some types of therapy; a patient’s understanding of his or her own psychological processes  Freud was one of the first people to develop psychological treatments for mental disorders – he believed that such disorders were caused by prior experiences, particularly traumatic experiences o Pioneered psychoanalysis, where a client would lie on a couch while the therapist sat out of view, to reduce the clients inhibitions and allow freer access to unconscious thought processes  Treatment involved uncovering unconscious feeling and drives that, Freud believed, gave rise to maladaptive thoughts and behaviours  Techniques included: o Free Association in which the client would say whatever came top mind o Dream analysis in which the therapist would interpret the hidden meaning of the client’s dreams  In the past few decades, psychodynamic therapy has become increasingly controversial o Expensive and time consuming, and sometimes continues for many years  Some promise is shown by psychodynamic therapy in treating certain disorders, such as borderline personality disorder o Evidence for treating most other mental disorders is very weak  Newer psychodynamic therapy consists of fewer sessions and focuses more on current relationships than on early experiences HUMANISTIC THERAPIES FOCUS ON THE WHOLE PERSON PSY 100  Client-centred Therapy: An empathetic approach to therapy; it encourages personal growth through greater self-understanding  Attempts to treat the person as a whole, rather than a collection of behaviours or a repository of repressed thoughts  Developed by the psychologist Carl Rogers, client-centred therapy encourages individuals to fulfill their individual potentials for personal growth through greater self-understanding  Create a safe and comforting setting for clients to access their true feelings o Therapists strive to be empathic, to take the client’s perspective, and to accept the client through unconditional positive regard  Reflective Listening in which the therapist repeats the client’s concerns to help the person clarify his or her feelings  Motivational interviewing is used with problem drinkers – it uses a client-centred approach over a very short period. o Successful as a result of the warmth expressed by the therapist towards the client COGNITIVE-BEHAVIOURAL THERAPY TARGETS THOUGHTS AND BEHAVIOURS  Cognitive Therapy: Treatment based on the idea that distorted thoughts produce maladaptive behaviours and emotions  Cognitive Restructuring: A therapy that strive to help patients recognize maladaptive thought patterns and replace them with ways of viewing the world that are more in tune with reality, advocated by Aaron Beck o “My boss yelled at me” > “I’m worthless”> Depression o BECOMES “My boss yelled at me” > “My boss is a jerk” > No depression  The central premise is that behaviour is learned and therefore can be unlearned using the principles of classical and operant conditioning  Social-skills training elicits the desired behaviour, and then the principles of operant and classical conditioning can be used to reform that behaviour  Modelling is where a therapist acts out an appropriate behaviour, and the client is encouraged to imitate this behaviour, rehearse it in therapy, and later apply the learned behaviour to real- world situations  Rational-emotive therapy is where therapists act as teachers who explain and demonstrate more-adaptive ways of thinking and behaving  Interpersonal therapy is where the focus is on relationships the client attempts to avoid o Helps clients express their emotions and explore interpersonal experiences  Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy, (CBT): A therapy that incorporates techniques from behavioural therapy and cognitive therapy to correct faulty thinking and change maladaptive behaviours o Person with social phobia, who fears negative evaluation, might be taught social skills  Therapist would try to help the client understand their appraisals of other people’s reactions to them might be inaccurate o Tends to be the most effective form of psychotherapy for many types of mental disorders, especially anxiety and mood disorders  Exposure: A behavioural therapy technique that involves repeated exposure to an anxiety- producing stimulus or situation PSY 100 GROUP THERAPY BUILDS SOCIAL SUPPORT  Group therapy rose in popularity after World War II, when there were more people needing therapy than there were therapists available to treat them o Therapists realized there were some instances were group therapy offers advantages over individual therapy  Cost is a major benefit  The group setting provides an opportunity for members to improve their social skills and learn from one another’s experiences  Most groups are organized around a particular type of problem, (sexual abuse, for example), or around a particular type of client, (women, for example) FAMILY THERAPY FOCUSES ON THE FAMILY CONTEXT  Systems approach assumes an individual is part of a larger context, and any change in individual behaviour will affect the whole system o This effect is clearest at the family level  Family attitude are often critical to long-term prognoses, and for that reason family members are encouraged to be involved in therapy  Expressed Emotion: A pattern of interactions that includes emotional over-involvement, critical comments, and hostility directed toward a patient by family members o Levels of negative expressed emotion corresponds to the relapse rate of patients with schizophrenia CONFESSION IS GOOD FOR THE SPIRIT  Catharsis is a term coined by Aristotle to describe the way certain messages evoke powerful emotional reactions and subsequent relief  Freud incorporated this idea into his psychoanalytic approach to the treatment of mental disorders o He believed that uncovering unconscious material and talking about it would bring about catharsis and subsequent relief from symptoms  The act of just telling someone about your problems can have healing power o James Pennebaker has explored this theory extensively o When people reveal intimate and highly emotional material, they go into an almost trancelike state o The pitch of their voices goes down, their rate of speech speeds up, and they lose track of both time and place o Talking or writing about emotionally charged events reduces blood pressure, muscle tension, and skin conduction during the disclosure and immediately thereafter o Also improves immune function  Confessional therapies can lead to better performance in work and school and can improve memory and cognition Culture Can Affect the Therapeutic Process  Psychotherapy is accepted to different extents in different countries  China have relatively few psychotherapists PSY 100 o Chinese people distrust emotional expression and avoid seeking help for depression, anger, or grief  Because of a stigma in different cultures, the words mental illness, depression, and anxiety are avoided; instead, terms such as tension and strain are used to communicate mental health problems Medication Is Effective for Certain Disorders  Psychotropic medications: Drugs that affect mental processes o Act by changing brain neurochemistry – by inhibiting action potentials or altering synaptic transmission for example  The success of medication in the treatment of mental disorders is largely responsible for the eta of deinstitutionalization, in which scores of patients were discharged from mental hospitals and treated with drugs as outpatients  Most psychotropic medications fall into three categories: o (1) Anti-anxiety drugs: A class of psychotropic medications used for the treatment of anxiety  Commonly called tranquilizers, used for short-term treatment of anxiety  Benzodiazepines increase the activity of GABA, an inhibitory NT  Also induce drowsiness and are highly addictive o (2) Antidepressants: Used to treat depression  Monoamine oxidase, (MAO) inhibitors were the first antidepressants to be discovered  Monoamine oxidase is an enzyme that converts serotonin into another chemical form  MAO inhibitors therefore result in more serotonin being available in brain synapses  These drugs also raise levels of norepinephrine and dopamine  Tricyclic antidepressants inhibit the reuptake of certain NTs, resulting in more being available in the synapse  Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, SSRIs, such as Prozac inhibit serotonin reuptake o Criticized for being used on people who are sad and have low self-esteem but are not clinically depressed – just generally being overused o (3) Antipsychotics: A class of drugs used to treat schizophrenia and other disorders that involve psychosis  Also known as neuroleptics  Reduce symptoms such as delusions and hallucinations  Traditionally bind to dopamine receptors, blocking dopamine’s effect  Have many irreversible side effects, such as tardive dyskinesia, the involuntary twitching of muscles, especially in the neck and face  Other drugs don’t easily fall into these categories, such as lithium used to treat bipolar disorder, and anti-convulsants which also regulate moods in bipolar disorder PSY 100 Alternative Biological Treatments Are Used in Extreme Cases  Alternative methods such as the use of magnetic fields, or electrical stimulation are used as last resorts usually because they are more likely to have serious side effects than either psychotherapy or medication  Trepanning, where holes are cut through the skull were used in many prehistoric locations, possibly believed to let out evil spirits believed to be causing unusual behaviour  Psychosurgery is where areas of the frontal cortex are selectively damaged o “Lobotomies” were used to treat severe mental disorders such as schizophrenia, major depression, and anxiety disorders o Usually results in flat affect, and impaired abstract thought, planning, motivation, and social interaction ELECTROCONVULSIVE THERAPY  Electroconvulsive Therapy, (ECT): A procedure used to treat depression; it involves administering a strong electrical current to the patient’s brain  The electrical current is strong enough to produce a seizure  Common in the 1950s to treat schizophrenia and depression  ECT is particularly effective for some cases of severe depression, although there are some risks to its use TRANSCRANIAL MAGNETIC STIMULATION  A powerful electrical current produces a magnetic field that, when rapidly switched on and off, induces an electrical current in the brain region directly below the coil, thereby interrupting neural function in that region  In single-pulse TMS, the disruption of brain activity occurs only during the brief period of stimulation o A pulse given over a motor region might interfere with a person’s ability to reach smoothly toward a target object  Repeated TMS involves disruption that can last beyond the period of direct stimulation  Seems promising to treat mental disorders, especially depression DEEP BRAIN STIMULATION  Involves surgically implanting electrodes deep within the brain and then using mild electricity to stimulate the brain at an optimal frequency and intensity, much the way a pacemaker stimulates the heart  Used to treat Parkinson’s disease initially, and is now the treatment of choice because of its great success Therapies Not Supported by Scientific Evidence Can Be Dangerous WHAT ARE THE MOST EFFECTIVE TREATMENTS  Some mental disorders are quite easily treated, others are not PSY 100 o Highly effective treatments exist for anxiety disorders, mood disorders, and sexual dysfunction, but few treatments for alcoholism are superior to the natural course of recovery people undergo without psychological treatment  David Barlow emphasizes the importance of evidence-based treatments, and prefers the term psychological treatments rather than psychotherapy  According to Barlow, three features characterize psychological treatments o (1) They vary according to the particular mental disorder and the client’s specific psychological symptoms  Treatments for bulimia will differ from those for panic disorder o (2) The techniques used will have been developed in the laboratory by psychological scientists, especially behavioural, cognitive, and social psychologists o (3) No overall grand theory guides treatment; rather treatment is based on evidence of its effectiveness Treatments That Focus on Behaviour and on Cognition Are Superior for Anxiety Disorder  Over the year, treatments for anxiety disorders have had mixed success o Freud believed anxiety disorders were results of repressed sexual and aggressive impulses, and that’s what was of interest to the therapist  Evidence suggests that cognitive-behavioural therapy works best to treat most adult anxiety disorders  Anxiety-reducing drugs are also beneficial in some cases, although risks of side-effects and relapse without the drug are common  The positive effects of CBT tend to last long after treatment SPECIFIC PHOBIAS  Characterized by the fear and avoidance of particular stimuli, such as height, spiders, etc  Learning theory suggests these fears are acquired either through experiencing trauma or by observing similar fear in others  Behavioural techniques are usually the treatment of choice o Client makes a fear hierarchy, a list of situations in which fear is aroused, in ascending order o The next step is relaxation training, in which the client learns to alternate muscular tension with muscular relaxation and to use relaxation techniques o Exposure therapy is the next step, while the client is relaxed they are asked to imagine or enact scenarios that become progressively more upsetting o New scenarios are only presented once the client is able to maintain relaxation at the previous levels o Relaxation response competes with, and eventually replaces, the fear response o Exposure, rather than relaxation seems to extinguish the phobic response, evidence indicates  Many practitioners leave out the relaxation component o Sometimes virtual environments are used to simulate the feared objects  Imaging studies show that psychotherapy effectively “rewires” the brain, and therefore affects the underlying biology of mental disorders PSY 100  Pharmacological treatments for phobias include tranquilizers o Once the drugs wear off, the fear tends to return  The combination of SSRIs and CBT seem to be effective in treating social phobia o Though the usage of SSRIs can result in lack of sexual interest  CBT is the therapy of choice for the treatment of phobias PANIC DISORDER  Panic disorder has multiple components, each of which may require a different treatment approach  Imipramine, a tricyclic antidepressant prevents panic attacks but does not reduce the anticipatory anxiety that occurs when people fear they might have an attack  CBT can be effective in breaking the learned association between the physical symptoms and the feeling of impending doom  When people feel anxious, they overestimate the probability of danger, potentially contributing to their rising feelings of panic o First clients identify their specific fears, such as a heart attack or fainting o Clients then estimate how many panic attacks they have had  Assign percentages to specific fears and then compare these numbers with the actual number of time the fears have been realized, (might fear having a heart attack during 85% of panic attacks, and fainting in 90%) o The actual rate is zero percent, if clients recognize this irrationality they often still suffer panic attacks o Exposure treatment works to break the learned association, which induces habituation and then extinction  CBT is as effective or more than medication, and more resistant to relapse  CBT and drugs is better than either alone for agoraphobia OBSESSIVE-COMPULSIVE DISORDER  Combination of intrusive thoughts, (obsessions)< and behaviours that an individual feels compelled to perform over and over, (compulsions)  OCD is partly genetic and appears to be related to Tourette’s Syndrome  Traditional anti-anxiety drugs are completely ineffective for OCD  SSRIs work to combat the obsessive components in depression, and found to be effective with OCD  Clomipramine, a potent SSRI is the drug of choice for OCD  CBT is effective for OCD and is especially valuable for those who do not benefit from or who do not want to rely on medication o Exposure and response prevention are the two most important components o Directly exposed to the stimuli that triggers compulsive behaviour but is prevented from engaging in that behaviour o The goal is to break the conditioned link between particular stimulus and the compulsive behaviour  Imaging of patients treated with either CBT or Prozac revealed the same changes in neural activity PSY 100 o The way people reinterpret their fears and change their behaviours can change the way their brains function  CBT seems to be more effective than clomipramine, although both were better than a placebo. Its recommended that you add CBT to your SSRI treatment if you do not do just CBT  Deep brain stimulation may be an effective treatment for those with OCD whom CBT or medication do not work  DBS electrodes put on the caudate can be effective Many Effective Treatments Are Available for Depression PHARMACOLOGICAL TREATMENT  MAO inhibitors relieve depression, but can be toxic because of their effects on various physiological systems o Tyramine, in red wine and aged cheeses can combine with MAOs and cause lethal elevations in blood pressure  Tricyclics, a type of antidepressant are extremely effective, but have a number of unpleasant side effects such as drowsiness, weight gain, sweating, and heart palpitations  Prozac, the SSRI does not affect histamine or acetylcholine, and thus has none of the side effects associated with the tricyclic antidepressants o Though SSRIs can cause insomnia, headache, weight loss, and sexual dysfunction  60%-70% of patients who take antidepressants experience relief from their symptoms, compared with 30% who respond to placebos COGNITIVE-BEHAVIOURAL TREATMENT OF DEPRESSION  Not all patients benefit from antidepressants and others cannot or will not tolerate the side effects  CBT appears to be just as effective as biological therapies in treating depression  From the cognitive perspective, people who become depressed do so because of automatic, irrational thoughts o Aaron Beck developed the cognitive distortion model that posits depression is the result of a cognitive triad of negative thoughts about oneself, the situation, and the future  People with anxiety disorders worry about the future, depressed people think about how they have failed in the past, how poorly they are dealing with the present situation, and how terrible the future will be  CBT aims to help the client think more adaptively, a change intended to improve mood and behaviour o Clients may be asked to recognize and record negative thoughts o Once the patterns are identified and monitored, the clinician can help the client recognize other ways of viewing the same situation that are not so dysfunctional  Combining CBT and antidepressant medication is often more effective than either one of these approaches alone  Response rates and remission rates of the combined-treatment approach are extremely good PSY 100 o People who are suicidal or unable to make commitments, taking just medication may be better o Those with liver or cardiac problems may benefit from solely CBT  Imaging studies showed that although psychotherapy and drugs involved the same brain regions, activity in those regions can be quite different during the two treatments o Maybe the two mechanisms operate through different mechanisms ALTERNATIVE TREATMENTS  Seasonal Affective Disorder, (SAD): Episodes of depression will more likely occur during winter – the winter blues o People with this respond favourably to phototherapy, which involves exposure to a high-intensity light source for part of each day  Regular aerobic exercise can reduce depression and prevent recurrence o Exercise releases endorphins, which are chemically related to norepinephrine, a NT implicated in depression o Endorphins can cause an overall feeling of well-being o Regularize bodily rhythms, improve self-esteem, and provide social support if people exercise with others o Depressed people, however, can have difficulty finding the energy and motivation to begin an exercise regime  Electroconvulsive Therapy, (ECT), has been effective for some people with major depression o Although it seems to work, the mechanism by which this occurs is unknown o May affect NTs or endocrine system; it has been shown to increase levels of acetylcholine o Antidepressants can take weeks to become effective, whereas ECT works quickly o ECT tends to be associated with high relapse rates, and memory impairments  Memory impairments are usually limited to the day ECT occurs  Cortisol levels that are high are usually correlated with higher levels of memory impairment after ECT  Transcranial magnetic stimulation, (TMS), can reduce depressive symptoms o TMS over the left frontal regions results in a significant reduction in depression o TMS can be performed outside a hospital, unlike ECT o Seems to work by a different mechanism than ECT, and thus will be better for some patients than others DEEP BRAIN STIMULATION  As with OCD, recent case studies indicate that DBS might be valuable for treating severe depression when all other treatments have failed  An area of the prefrontal cortex is abnormal in depression  Some people feel relief from depression as soon as DBS is turned on  DBS on the nucleus accumbens alleviates symptoms of depression, and the caudate relieves symptoms of OCD GENDER ISSUES IN TREATING DEPRESSION PSY 100  Women are twice as likely to be diagnosed with depressed as men are o High rates of domestic and other violence against women, reduced economic resources, and inequities at work  Women are the primary consumers of psychotherapy  Men’s reluctance to admit to depression and even greater reluctance to seek appropriate therapy have been described as “a conspiracy of silence that has long surrounded depression in men” Lithium is Most Effective for Bipolar Disorder  Bipolar disorder is one of the few mental disorders for which there is a clear optimal treatment: psychotropic medications, especially lithium  The mechanisms by which lithium stabilizes mood are not well understood, but the drug seems to modulate neurotransmitter levels, balancing excitatory and inhibitory activities  Lithium has unpleasant side effects such as thirst, hand tremors, excessive urination, and memory problems o Side effects often diminish after several weeks on the drug  Lithium works better with mania than depression, and thus lithium is often paired with an antidepressant o SSRIs are preferable to other antidepressants because they are less likely to trigger episodes of mania Pharmacological Treatments are Superior for Schizophrenia PHARMACOLOGICAL TREATMENTS  Reserpine, when given to schizophrenic patients, not only has a sedative effect but also was an effective antipsychotic, reducing positive symptoms such as hallucinations and delusions  Chlorpromazine, acts as a major tranquilizer – reduces anxiety, sedates without inducing sleep, and decreases the severity and frequency of the positive symptoms o Synthetic version of reserpine o Later, another antipsychotic, haloperidol, was developed that was chemically different and had less of a sedating effect than chlorpromazine  Medications have little or no impact on the negative symptoms of schizophrenia  Medications have side effects that resemble the motor symptoms of those with Parkinson’s disease: immobility of facial muscles, trembling of extremities, muscle spasms, uncontrollable salivation, and shuffling walk  In the 1980s, clozapine, was introduced o Acts not only on dopamine receptors, but also on those for serotonin, norepinephrine, acetylcholine, and histamine o Beneficial in treating negative as well as the positive symptoms of schizophrenia o No signs of Parkinson’s syndromes of Tardive Dyskinesia o Has serious side effects: seizures, heart arrhythmias, and weight gain o Can cause a serious reduction in white blood cells  Drugs that do not lower white blood cells are called Second-generation antipsychotics, and are now the first line of treatment for schizophrenia PSY 100 o Associated with the least risks of all antipsychotics PSYCHOSOCIAL TREATMENTS  Antipsychotics fall short of being a cure and require combination with other treatment approaches to ensure patients can lead productive lives  Social skills training is an effective way to address some deficits in patients with schizophrenia o These can help in the regulation of affect, the ability to recognize social cues, and predicting the effects of their behaviour in social situations  When self-care skills are deficient, behavioural interventions can focus on areas such as grooming and bathing, management of medications, and financial planning  Training in specific cognitive skills, such as in modifying thinking patterns and coping with auditory hallucinations, has been less effective  Aaron Beck has proposed an intensive form of CBT is effective for treating schizophrenia o Brain dysfunction gives rise to disordered beliefs and behaviours and that schizophrenia may be due partly to limited cognitive resources and an inability to inhibit the intrusion of inappropriate thoughts o CBT involves getting the client to trust the therapist as nonjudgmental and understanding of the client’s perspective o Therapists will emphasize an understanding of how stressful life circumstances contribute to disordered thoughts and how alternative explanations might exist for delusions and hallucinations PROGNOSIS IN SCHIZOPHRENIA  Most patients with schizophrenia improve over time o No one knows why most people with schizophrenia apparently improve as they grow older o Perhaps they find an effective treatment regimen o Perhaps changes in the brain that occur with aging somehow result in fewer psychotic episodes o Dopamine levels decrease with age, and this decrease may be related to the improvement in symptoms  Prognosis depends on factors including age of onset, gender, and culture o Those diagnosed later in life tend to have a more favourable prognosis than those who experience their first symptoms in childhood or adolescence o Women tend to have better prognoses than men, perhaps because it becomes onset later in life than women than men o In developing countries, schizophrenia is not so severe as in developed countries  Possibly because more extensive family networks in developing countries provide more support for patients with schizophrenia There Are Important Considerations in Selecting a Psychotherapist  Clinical Psychologists: o Typically have a doctoral degree, their Ph.D. takes 4-6 years and emphasizes the design and analysis of research and the use of treatments that have empirical support PSY 100 o Work in academic or hospital settings o A Psy. D emphasizes clinical skills over research and is meant for those who intend to provide direct mental health services o Typically not able to prescribe medications  Psychiatrist: o Have a medical degree, (MD), and 3 – 4 years of additional residency training o Work in hospitals or private practice o Only mental health practitioners legally authorized to prescribe drugs in Canada  Counselling Psychologists: o Usually have PhD in counselling psychology o Typically deal with problems of adjustment and life stress that do not involve mental illness o Deal with stress related to scholastic, martial, and occupational problems  Psychiatric Social Workers: o Most often have a master’s degree in social work, (M.S.W), and specialized training in mental health care o Work with patients in psychiatric hospitals, and may visit people in their homes and address problems arising from the home environment  Psychiatric Nurses: o Typically have a bachelor’s degree in nursing, (B.S.N), and special training in the care of mentally ill patients o Work in hospitals or residential treatment programs that specialize in serious mental illness  Paraprofessionals: o Have limited advanced training and usually work under supervision o Assist those with mental health problems in the challenges of daily living  Sunk-cost fallacy is when you stay with a therapist who isn’t working but you’ve invested a lot of time and money into CAN PERSONALITY DISORDERS BE TREATED? Dialectical Behaviour Therapy is Most Successful for Borderline Personality Disorder  Dialectal Behaviour Therapy, (DBT): A form of therapy used to treat borderline personality disorder  Patients are seen in group and individual sessions, and the responsibilities of the patient and the therapist are made explicit  Has three stages: o (1) the therapist targets the patient’s most extreme and dysfunctional behaviours  Often these are self-cutting and suicidal attempts  Focus on replacing these behaviours with more appropriate ones  Patient learns problem solving techniques and more effective and acceptable ways of coping with his or her emotions o (2) the therapist helps the patient explore past traumatic experiences that may be at the root of emotional problems PSY 100 o (3) the therapist helps the patient develop self-respect and independent problem solving  Crucial because borderline patients depend heavily on others for support and validation, and they must be able to generate these attitudes and skills themselves or they likely will revert to their previous behaviour patterns  Those of high socio-economic level who receive intensive treatment show long-term improvement o Most others experience interpersonal and occupational problems o Substance abuse is common in the rest and many attempt suicide many times Anti-social Personality Disorder is Difficult to Treat THERAPEUTIC APPROACHES FOR ANTI-SOCIAL PERSONALITY DISORDER  Overall, psychotropic medications have been ineffective in treating AS personality disorder  Traditional psychotherapeutic approaches seem of little use in treatment of ASPD too  CBT attempts to replace maladaptive behaviours with more socially appropriate ones o This is only effective on an inpatient basis, such as in a correctional facility or a residential treatment center PROGNOSIS FOR ANTI-SOCIAL PERSONALITY DISORDER  Those with psychopathic traits are particularly unlikely to ever change their behaviours, however, those without psychopathic traits seem to show improvement after age 40 o This may be a result of a reduction in biological drives o People may just become worn out and unable to maintain their manipulative ways o People may gain insight into their self-defeating behaviours  Any improvement is usually in the realm of anti-social behaviour o Underlying egocentricity, callousness, and manipulativeness can remain unchanged  Conduct disorder is a childhood precursor to anti-social personality disorder o Attempts at prevention may be more p
More Less

Related notes for PSY100H1

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.