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Chapter 9

Behavior Modification Chapter 9.docx

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Behavior Modification Chapter 9 – Motivation Definition: Traditional Views- Motivation is a process that initiates, directs, and maintains physical and psychological activities of people and other organisms. It is divided in 2 parts: Drives- which are mainly unconditionally and biologically based, such as hunger and thirst, and Motives- which are at least part ly learned and psychologically or socially based, such as the desire for money and the things it buys. Broad Motives: Achievement motives- the desire to succeed and make significant and valuable accomplishments. For e.g. Thomas Edison fits the definition of achievement motive. He and over thousand inventions like bulbs, microphones. Broad motives, such as for achievement, are like personality traits. Desire and Readiness to Change: The desire to change is considered a motive, and assessing it can be important in therapy, especially if the client fill out Scale of Motivation to Change Behavior Pg. 134. A theory called the stages of change model describes a series of 5 stages through which people’s motivation and intention to modify a specific behavior, such as exercising, progress in readiness to change. At the lowest stage, the person has no interest in changing the behavior; at the highest stage, the person has completed the change and is working to maintain it. People at an intermediate level called preparation have made commitment to modify the behavior, such as starting to exercise. A Behavior Analytic View: Mainly focuses on ways to manipulate motivation as an antecedent. Because behavior analyses try to maximize the effects of antecedents and consequences, the motivational functions of the antecedents need to make as effective as possible the specific consequences we will use in efforts. Establishing operations is environmental manipulations that alter the effect of a stimulus such as water, as a reinforcer and increase the frequency of all responses that have been reinforced with that stimulus in the past. Motivating Operations: Motivating Operations (MOs) as procedures that temporarily alter the (a) effectiveness of a reinforcer or punisher on behavior and (b) performance of behaviors that normally lead to those consequences. 2 effects of MOs: 1. Value- altering effect: changing the effectiveness of consequences; 2. Behavior- altering effect- changing the performance of behaviors that normally lead to those consequences MOs  value- altering effects + behavior altering effects 2 types of behavior altering effect: 1- Evocative effect if it increases the behavior; 2- Abative effect if it decreases the behavior. MOs can be of 2 types: 1. Establishing Operations (EOs)- increase the effectiveness of a reinforcer or a punisher (the value- altering effect) and lead to the corresponding changes in behavior (behavior- altering effect). If an EO applies to a reinforcer it increases the behavior (evocative effect); If an EO applies to the punisher it decreases the behavior (an abative effect). 2. Abolishing operations (AOs)- decrease the effectiveness of a reinforcer or punisher on behavior. If an AO applies to a reinforcer it decreases the effect (an abative effect); if an AO applies to the punisher it increases the effect (evocative effect). Motivating Operations Value- Altering Effect Behavior- Altering Effect Reinforcement Punishment Reinforcement Punishment Establishing Operations (EOs) Increase Increase Increase behavior Decrease behavior effectiveness effectiveness (evocative effect) (abative effect) Abolishing Operations (AOs) Decrease Decrease Decrease behavior Increase behavior effectiveness effectiveness (abative effect) (evocative effect) Establishing And Abolishing Operations For Reinforcement: When we have not eaten for a few hours eating food becomes positive reinforcer leading to the behaviors such as food seeking. Food deprivation and satiation are MOs for food serving as a reinforcer: Being deprived for food is an EO, and consuming food is an AO. The changes in reinforcer strength are value- altering rffects and the changes in the behavior are behavior- altering effects. As shown in the table EO (deprivation) should have the value- altering effect of increasing reinforcer effectiveness and the evocative behavior- altering effect. In contrast, the AO (satiation) should have the value- altering effect of decreasing reinforcer effectiveness and an abative behavior- altering effect. EOs and AOs should also have similar effects with negative reinforcement- the reduction of an uncomfortable condition, such as high or low room temperature in your home. E.g. The behavior of adjusting the room temperature assuming that you have to go to a vacation and had lowered the temperature to save on bills. Now you return and find the room cold so the reinforcer evocative behavior- altering effect will both be very strong. In contrast, if the room temperature was not changed at all before you left, on your return an AO would be in effect, decreasing the reinforcer effectiveness and the behavior of adjusting the temperature(the abative effect) For e.g. when kids try to avoid any sort of training for a difficult task they engage into a self-injurious or destructive behavior. Let's take 3 autistic boys who are trying to avoid a training-- EO, increasing the reifnorcer effectiveness and the evocative effect for their destructive escape behavior. Ben one of the boys' EO would be his having to perform the same tasks over and over, which led to his hitting and punching behaviors that disrupted the training. When the re
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