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Chapter 3

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Psychology. Chapter 3.  Synesthesia: Cross sensory experience (like a visual image having a taste). Synesthete  a person who experiences synesthesia.is hereditary.  Genetics: a term usually used to describe characteristics such as height, hair color etc are passed along through inheritance.  Biology and environment mutually influence each other.  Human Genome Project: an international research effort. Mapping of the entire structure of the human genetic material. The genome is the master blueprint that provides detailed instructions to multiple options within our body from how to grow a gall baldder to where the nose is placed. And our environment determines which option is taken.  Chromosomes: structures within the cel boy that are made up of genes.  Gene: the unit of hereditary that determines a particular characteristic in an organism. » Dominant gene: a gene that is expressed in the offspring whenever it is present. » Recessive gene: a gene that is expressed only when it sis matched with a similar gene from the other parent.  The human body down to its genes: each cell in the human body includes pairs of chromosomes, which consist of DNA strands. DNA has a double helix shape and is composed of genes. The 23rs chromosome pair determines sex: two X chromosomes makes a female while one X and one Y make a male.  Genotype: the genetic constitution determined at the moment of conception.( possible genetic combinations)  Phenotype: observable physical characteristics that result from both genetic and environmental influences. (result of a combination of genotypes)  Mendel’s flower experiment in 1866. Experimental technique used was selective breeding. Purple vs. white flowers. Purple won.  Polygenic characteristic: when a population displays a range of variability for a certain characteristic i.e. it is influenced by many genes.  Monozygotic twins: twin siblings who result from one zygote splitting in two and therefore share the same genes. Identical twins.  Dizygotic twins: twin siblings that result from two separately fertilized eggs. Fraternal twins.  Heredity: transmission f chracteristics from parents to offspring by means of genes.  Heritability: a statistical estimate of the variation, caused by differences in heredity, in a trait within a population.  Genetic modifications: methods that enhance or interrupt gene expression by selectively knocking out specific genes to reveal which behaviors were affected.  Neurons: the as unit of the nervous system; it operates through electrical impulses which communicate with other neurons through chemical signals. Neurons receive, integrate and transmit information in the nervous system.3 types: » Sensor neurons: afferent neurons detect information from the physical world and pass that information along to the brain. » Motor neurons: these efferent neurons direct muscles to contract or relax, thereby producing movement. » Interneurons: these neurons communicate only with other neurons, typically within a specific brain region.  Neuron structure: neurons don’t touch each other. Messages are received by the dendrites, processed in the cell body and sent along the axon to other neurons via chemicals released from the terminal buttons across the synapse. » Dendrites: short branch like extensions of the neuron that increase neuron’s receptive field and detect information (chemical signals) from other neurons. » Cell body: in the neuron, where information from thousands of other neurons is collected and processed. » Axon: a long narrow outgrowth of a neuron by which information is transmitted to other neurons. Vary in length from a few mm to more than a meter. » Myelin sheath: a fatty material, made up of gilal cells, that insulates the axon and allows for the rapid movement of electrical impulses along the axon. Short segments. » Nodes of Ranvier: small gaps of exposed axon, between the segments of myelin sheath, where action potentials (negatively or positively charged ions are allowed to pass in or out when the neuron transmits the signal) are transmitted. » Terminal buttons: small nodules, at the ends of axons, that release chemical signals from the neuron to the synapse. » Synapse/Synaptic cleft: the site for chemical communication between neurons, which contains extracellular fluid.  Resting membrane potential: the electrical charge of a neuron when it is not active. The ratio of negative ions to positive ions is greater inside than outside.  Polarization: The change in differential electrical charges inside and outside the neuron. It creates the energy necessary to power the firing of the neuron.  Action potential: the neural impulse that passes along the axon and subsequently causes the release of chemicals from the terminal buttons. The electrical charge inside the neuron starts out slightly negative. as the neuron fires, it allows more positive ions inside the cell (depolarization). » Two signals work by affecting polarization:  Excitatory: signals that depolarize the cell membrane, increasing the likelihood that the neuron will fire.  Inhibitory: signals that hyperpolarize the cell and decrease the likelihood that the neuron will fire.  Sodium ions enter negative to positively charged, potassium ions exit back to negatively charged.  Myelin sheath deterioration may start n young adulthood and leaves the person severely (starts with blurry vision/numbness in limbs) impaired by the end of it.  All or none principle: the principle where the neuron fires with the same potency each time, although frequency can vary; it either fires or not. It cannot partially fire.  Presynaptic: neuron that sends the signal to the synaptic cleft.  Postsynaptic: neuron that receives the signal.  Neurotransmitter: a chemical substance that carries signals from one neuron to another.  Receptors: in neurons, specialized protein molecules, on the postsynaptic membrane, that neurotransmitters bind to after passing across the synaptic cleft.  3 major events that terminate the transmitters influence in the synapse are: » Reuptake: the process whereby a neurotransmitter is taken back into the presynaptic terminal buttons, thereby stopping its activity. (Taken back for recycling). » Enzyme deactivation: when an enzyme destroys the transmitter substance in the synapse. Different enzymes break down different neurotransmitters. » Auto receptors: they monitor how much neurotransmitter is released in the synapse. If excess is detected, they signal the presynaptic neuron to stop releasing the neurotransmitter.  Agonist: any drugs that enhances the actions of a specific neurotransmitter.  Antagonist: any drugs that inhibits the action of a specific neurotransmitter.  Common neurotransmitters and t
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