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Chapter 11

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University of Toronto St. George
Nhung Tuyet Tran

Chapter 11 Physical Health36 million years ago we had the Australopithecus afarensis who lives near Laetoli TanzaniaThey walked over a field with wet volcanic ash and they discovered so much from their foot prints They discovered that these people Walked on two feetbipedal so they were not chimps and they were not quite humanhomo sapiens they were the first look at bipedality in the hominid eraThey knew they werent apes because their big toes didnt point out and there were no knuckle lines Being bipedal did a lot it allowed them to use their hands to create tools cooled their body down because they had less of it pointed to the sun and they could travel long distances more efficiently They were not quite modern humans because their feetfront part were wider with a huge arch and their big toe was quite separated from the rest of the other toesWe have to be careful when comparing their feet to ours because they had a major cultural practice that was different to ours they dont wear shoes and wearing shoes overtime change the shape of our feetShoes make out feet narrower toes closer together and lower arches Compared to modern humans today who dont wear shoes they are quite the same Wearing shoes changes the way we walk and furthermore run In history human beings have not worn shoes or they wore minimal sandals or moccasins and they are reported to have run longer distances in worse conditions and were prone to less injuriesHumans evolved to be endurance runners running away from their prey People who run barefoot land with their fore or mid feet while running in shoes you land with your rear feet Running barefoot leads to less injuries and children take longer steps barefoot than in shoesThe Tarahumara tribe in Mexico participate in long distance kickball races across canyons barefoot and they last for about 48 hours and more than 100 miles these people have won super marathonsLooking at the culture of wearing shoes and how it affects the feet can tell about how intense cultural practices are because they can change the shape of our bodies and alter our healthpsychology has been linked to health and this chapter wants to delve into how it affects the human biologyBiological variability of humans There are 2 explanations for variability in humans1People living in different parts of the world had different selection pressures that made them look different meaning they are innately different from many many generations ago2People living in different cultures have cultural experiences in their life that impact their biology meaning an acquired biological difference
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