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Chapter 9

Chapter 9 motivation and emotion.docx

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Dan Dolderman

Chapter 9: Emotion and Motivation Motivation = the area of psychological science concerned with the factors that energize, or stimulate, behavior. It focuses on what produces behavior – for instance, what makes you get up in the morning and go to class. Four essential qualities of motivational states: 1) Energizing – they activate or arouse behaviors. 2) Directive – they guide behaviors toward satisfying specific goals or specific needs. 3) Perseverance – they help people persist in their behavior until goals are achieved or needs are satisfied 4) Strength – motives differ in strength, depending on internal and external factors. Humanistic psychology: viewing people as striving toward personal fulfillment. Yerkes-Dodson Law Principle: performance increases with arousal up to an optimal point and then decreases with increasing arousal. Sigmund Freud proposed that drives are satisfied according to the Pleasure Principle, which drives people to seek pleasure and avoid pain. Self-determination theory: people are motivated to satisfy needs for competence, relatedness to others and autonomy, which is a sense of personal control. - Extrinsic rewards may reduce the intrinsic value because such rewards undermine people’s feeling that they are choosing to do something for themselves. Self-perception theory: people seldom are aware of their specific motives and instead draw inferences about their motivations according to what seems to make the most sense. Delayed Gratification: >> The process of transcending immediate temptations to achieve long-term goals. Walter Mischel’s experiment: - Gave children the choice of waiting to receive their preferred toy or food item or having a less preferred toy or food item right away. - Some children are better at delaying gratification than others. - The ability predicts success. - Strategies included ignoring the temptation, distracting oneself, and turning hot cognitions into cold cognitions (this strategy involves mentally transforming the desired object into something undesired) Need to belong theory: the need for interpersonal attachments is a fundamental motive that has evolved for adaptive purposes. Scientific Method: Schachter’s study on anxiety and affiliation Hypothesis: Feeling anxious makes people want to be with others. Research method: 1) The participants, all female, were told they would be hooked up to equipment that would administer electric current to their skin. 2) Some participants were told the shocks would be painless. Others were told the shocks would be quite painful. 3) All participants were then asked if, while the experiment was being set up, they wanted to wait alone or with others. Results: The participants who were told the shocks would be painful (the high- anxiety condition) were much more likely to want to wait with others. Conclusion: Increased anxiety led to increased motivation to be with others, at least for females. Social comparison theory: we are motivated to have accurate information about ourselves and others. We compare ourselves with those around us to test and validate personal beliefs and emotional responses, especially when the situation is ambiguous and we can compare ourselves with people relatively similar to us. Sensory-specific satiety: animals will stop eating relatively quickly if they have just one type of food to eat, but they will eat more if presented with a different type of food. The hypothalamus influences eating. Damaging the middle, or ventromedial region of the hypothalamus (VMH) causes rats to eat great quantities of food, a condition called hyperphagia. Damaging the outer, or lateral, area of the hypothalamus (LH) is associated with a condition called aphagia, in which diminishing eating behavior leads to weight loss and eventual death. The prefrontal cortex processes taste cues such as sweetness and saltiness. This prefrontal region appears to process information about the potential reward value of food. Brain imaging studies have found that the craving triggered by seeing good- tasting food is associated with activity in the limbic system, which is the main brain region involved in reward. Overweight people show more activity in reward regions of the brain when they look at good-tasting foods than do normal-weight individuals. Damage to the limbic system or the right frontal lobes sometimes produces gourmand syndrome, in which people become obsessed with fine food and food preparation. Glucostatic theory: the bloodstream is monitored for its glucose levels. Because glucose is the primary fuel for metabolism and is especially crucial for neuronal activity, it makes sense for animals to be sensitive to deficiencies in glucose. Lipostatic theory: a set-point for body fat in which deviations from the set-point initiate compensatory behaviors to return to homeostasis. E.g. When an animal loses body fat, hunger signals motivate eating and a return to the set-point. Leptin, a hormone involved in fat regulation, is released from fat cells as more fat is stored. It travels to the hypothalamus, where it acts to inhibit eating behavior. Leptin acts slowly so it takes a considerable time after eating before leptin levels change in the body. Therefore, leptin may be more important for long-term fat regulation than for short-term eating control. However, some recent evidence indicates that leptin might also influence the reward properties of food and make it less appetizing, so leptin might also have short-term effects. Animals lacking the gene necessary to produce leptin become extremely obese and injecting leptin into them leads to rapid weight loss. Ghrelin, another hormone, also effecting eating. It originates in the stomach and surges before meals. It then decreases after people eat and so may play an important role in triggering eating. When people lose weight, an increase in ghrelin motivates additional eating in a homeostatic fashion. The sexual response cycle: 1) Excitement phase – when people contemplate sexual activity or begin engaging in behaviors such as kissing and touching in a sensual manner. Blood flows to the genitals and people report feelings of arousal 2) Plateau phase – pulse rate, breathing and blood pressure increase. Inhibition is lifted and passion takes control. 3) Orgasm phase – involuntary muscle contractions throughout the body, dramatic increase in breathing and heart rate, rhythmic contractions of the vagina for women and ejaculation of semen for men. 4) Resolution phase – the male enters a refractory period, during which he is temporarily unable to maintain an erection or have an orgasm. The female does not have this refractory period and can experience multiple orgasms with short resolution phases between each one. Testosterone drives sexual activity. Oxytocin is released during sexual arousal and orgasm; it is also associated with trust; it is believed to promote feelings of love and attachment between partners; it also seems to be involved in social behavior more generally. The hypothalamus is the most important brain region for stimulating sexual behavior and so damage to this region can interrupt sexual behavior. Dopamine receptors in the limbic system are involved in the physical experience of pleasure. Serotonin reduces sexual interest. Nitric oxide production comes from sexual stimulation. It promotes blood flow to the penis and clitoris and subsequently plays an important role in sexual arousal, especially penile erections. When this system fails, men cannot maintain an erection. Viewing erotica activates reward regions in the brain, such as various limbic structures. This effect is greatest for men who have higher blood levels of testosterone. When men and women viewed sexually arousing stimuli, such as film clips of sexual activity or nude pictures of the opposite sex, men showed more activation of the amygdala, which increases the arousal by the stimulus. Even though both sexes prefer viewing erotic movies aimed at their own sex, men were aroused by both types of movies. Women’s reac
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