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Chapter 10

Chapter 10 health and well-being.docx

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Dan Dolderman

Chapter 10: Health and Well-being Well-being = a positive state that includes striving for optimal health and life satisfaction. Biopsychosocial model “views health and illness as the product of a combination of factors including biological characteristics, behavioral factors and social conditions. Placebo effect = a drug or treatment, unrelated to the particular problem of the person who receives it, may make the recipient feel better because the person believes the drug or treatment is effective. Stress = a pattern of behavioral, psychological and physiological responses to events that match or exceed an organism’s abilities to respond. Stressor = an environmental event or stimulus that threatens an organism. Coping response = any response an organism make to avoid, escape from, or minimize an aversive stimulus. Two types of stress: 1) Eustress – the stress of positive events 2) Distress or duress – the stress of negative events. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis: 1) Stressful event 2) Brain 3) Hypothalamus – sends a chemical message to the… 4) Pituitary gland – secretes a hormone that travels through the bloodstream until they reach the… 5) Adrenal gland – in turn secretes cortisol. Excessive stress disrupts working memory, especially when the demands on working memory are high. Chronic stress has also been associated with memory impairments cause when cortisol damages neurons in the brain areas including the hippocampus. Stress interferes with the ability to recall previously learned information. Fight-or-flight response = the physiological preparedness of animals to deal with danger. Tend-and-befriend response = Females’ tendency to protect and care for their offspring and form social alliances rather than flee or fight in response to threat. Possible biological basis: More oxytocin is produced in women than in men during stressful occurrences; when estrogen levels are high for women (menstruation and menopause), they have reduced responses to stress. Hans Selye injected rats with sex hormones from other animals. He found enlarged adrenal glands, decreased levels of lymphocytes and stomach ulcers. He also restrained them to create stressful situations. He concluded that these three responses, which reduced the animal’s potential ability to resist additional stressors, were the hallmark of a non-specific stress response. General adaptation syndrome = a consistent pattern of responses to stress that consist of three stages: 1) Alarm – the body prepares itself to fight or flee; boosting of physical abilities while reducing activities that make the organism vulnerable to infection after injury. 2) Resistance – defenses prepare for a longer, more sustained attack against the stressor; immunity to infection and disease increase somewhat as the body max
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