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Chapter 14

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY100H1
Professor
Dan Dolderman
Semester
Fall

Description
Psychological Disorders [Chapter 14] Mood disorders have cognitive, situational, and biological components  Disorders can result in loss of jobs, friends, family etc and at a higher danger of suicide so important to understand causes of major depression and treating it  Studies of twins, families, and adoption support the notion that depression has a genetic component o Concordance rates between identical twins are 4 times higher than the rates between fraternal twins eg. bipolar disorder  Families with bipolar disorder, successive generations have more severe disorders and earlier age of onset  Biological factors are involved in depression (a deficiency of one or more monoamines- neurotransmitters that regulate emotion and arousal)  Medications that increase availability of norepinephrine, a monoamine, alleviate depression whereas those that decrease levels can cause depression  Prozac- a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)- increase another monoamine- serotonin  Damage to left prefrontal cortex can lead to depression but damage to right does not- may be kind of biological maker of predisposition to depression  Symptom of depression is excessive sleeping and tiredness (sleep more)  Some show depression depending on the season- seasons affective disorder (SAD) – results in periods of depression corresponding to the shorter days of winter  How individuals react to stress, how many negative events they have  Relationships contribute to the development of depression, alter peoples experiences when depressed, and ultimately may be damaged by the constant needs of the depressed person o People avoid these people, which means them more depressed  Depressed people blame misfortunes on personal defects while seeing positive occurrences as the result of luck  Cognitive processes o Cognitive triad: depressed people think negatively about themselves, situation, and future o Learned helplessness model: a cognitive model of depression in which people feel unable to control events around them  Dysfunctional cognitive patterns are a cause rather than consequence of depression What is schizophrenia?  Splitting of the mind  split between thought and emotion  Psychotic disorder- characterized by alternations in thoughts, perceptions or consciousness Schizophrenia has positive and negative symptoms  Two categories of characteristics: o Positive symptoms: excesses (not positive in sense of good)  Delusions, hallucinations o Negative symptoms: deficits in functioning  Apathy, lack of emotion, slowed speech and movement Positive symptoms of schizophrenia  Delusions: false personal beliefs based on incorrect inferences about reality o Table 14.5  Disorders can deny reality because cognitive processes misinform them about what is real and what is not  Type of delusion can be influenced by cultural factors o German and Japanese had similar rates of delusions of grandeur (believed themselves much more powerful and important than they really are) o But then differed In others; germans had much more delusions involving guilt or sin or delusions of persecution and Japanese had delusions of harassment (believed they were being slandered by others)  Hallucinations: false sensory perceptions that are experienced without an external source  Auditory hallucinations- have a voice that accuses them of stuff o Need to ignore voice in their head  Associated with activation in cortical areas that process external sensory stimuli  Loosening of associations: a speech pattern among patients with schizophrenia in which their thoughts are disorganized or meaningless o Extreme case involve clang associations- the stringing together of words that rhyme but have no apparent link  Common symptom: disorganized behaviour: acting in strange or unusual ways, including strange movement of limbs, bizarre speech, and inappropriate self care, such as failing to dress properly or bathe o Catatonic schizophrenia: mindlessly repeat words they hear, behaviour called echolalia o Or might remain immobilized in one position for hours Negative symptoms of schizophrenia  Result in patients becoming isolated and withdrawn  Slowed speech, reduced speech input, pauses, avoid eye contact etc  Symptoms are less dramatic than delusions and hallucinations but equally serious and are associated with a poorer prognosis  Positive symptoms can be dramatically reduced or eliminated with antipsychotic medications but negative symptoms often persist  Positive symptoms respond to class of medications (antipsychotics) that act on neurotransmitter systems so symptoms thought to have resulted from neurotransmitter dysfunction  Negative symptoms may be associated with abnormal brain anatomy and believed to be a separate disorder from schizophrenia with positive symptoms Schizophrenia is primarily a brain disorder  Theories state mother that simultaneously accepted and rejected their children, their contradictory behaviour caused their children to develop schizophrenia, but genetics plays a role in the development of it  Likelihood of developing it is higher in twins than fraternal kids  The genetic component represents a predisposition rather than destiny  Have mutations in their DNA 4 times healthy individuals (especially in brain development and to neurological function) o Result in abnormal brain development which might lead to disorder o No single gene causes it, but rather multiple ones contribute in subtle ways to the expression of the disorder  Brain imaging studies show that the ventricles in people with it are enlarged, meaning that actual brain tissue is reduced which is associated with more negative outcomes and longitudinal studies show continued reductions over time o Reduction in tissue occurs in many regions, especially frontal lobes and medial temporal lobes o Reduced activity in these areas  One possibility is that it results from abnormality in neurotransmitters o Thought that more dopamine increases symptoms  When looking at childhood videos of patients they showed unusual social behaviours, more severe negative emotions, and motor disturbances  When studying high risk youths, determined 5 factors that predict onset of psychotic disorders: o Family history of schizophrenia o Greater social impairment o Higher levels of suspicion/paranoia o History of substance abuse o Higher levels of unusual thoughts  2/3 factors, nearly 80% developed  Studies show how it develops over the life course but that obvious symptoms develop in late adolescence Environmental factors influence schizophrenia  Those at risk, environmental stresses might contribute to development  Found that if adoptive kids with risk were raised in healthy family, none of them became psychotic  Studies suggest that mothers of those with it are more likely than other mothers to have contracted influenza during this critical period Are personality disorders truly mental disorders?  Personality disorder: when people interact with the world in maladaptive and inflexible ways and this style of interaction is lon
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