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Chapter 9

PSY100- Chapter 9.docx

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Dan Dolderman

Motivation and Emotion [Chapter 9] Elliot Began - In early 30s began suffering from severe headaches - It turned out a tumour the size of a small orange was growing behind his eyes - This tumour grew, forcing his frontal loves upward into the top of his skull - Once this tumour was removed, it would unavoidable to remove the surrounding frontal lobe tissue - At first his surgery was a success, went back to normal, but then he changed to no longer being able to experience emotion - The absence of emotion sabotaged his ability to make rational decisions - He was incapable of making trivial decisions and failed to learn from his mistakes - Emotions are a primary source of motivation and together they make things happen - They underlie the painful episodes most of us try to avoid and when they happen, try to forget - This case shows evidence of how various brain regions produce and regulate emotional responses as well as how emotions affect daily lives How does Motivation activate, direct, and sustain behaviour? Motivation: Factors that energize, direct, or sustain behaviour - Focuses on what produces behaviour - Most general theories of motivation emphases 4 essential qualities: o Motivational states are energizing- they activate or arouse behaviours- they cause animals to do something o Motivational states are directive – they guide behaviours toward satisfying specific goals or specific needs eg. Hunger motivates eating o Motivational states help people persist in their behaviour until goals re achieved or needs are satisfied o Most theories agree that motives differ in strength depending on internal and external factors Multiple factors motivate behaviour Need: state of biological or social deficiency -eg. the need for water or the need to be with other people - lead to goal directed behaviour; failure to satisfy a particular need leads to psychological or physical impairment [Need hierarchy (Maslow)]: Maslow’s arrangement of needs, in which basic survival needs must be met before people can satisfy higher needs - Survival needs at the base of the hierarchy, believed they had to be satisfied first - Believed that in order to experience personal growth, people must fulfill their biological needs, feel safe and secure, feel loved, and have a good opinion of themselves - This theory is an example of humanistic psychology which is viewing people as striving toward personal fulfillment Self-actualization: A state that is achieved when one’s personal dreams and aspirations have been attained - Living up to your potential and therefore being truly happy - However this may be untrue, and therefore, his theory is more useful as an indicator of what might be true about peoples behaviours than of what actually is true about them [Drives and Incentives] Arousal: physiological activation, such as increased brain activity, autonomic response, sweating, or muscle tension - Needs create arousal, which motivates behaviour Drive: psychological state that motivates an organism to satisfy its needs - eg. need is food, drive is hunger, behaviour is eating - for biological states such as thirst or hunger, basic drives help animals maintain steadiness (equilibrium) Homeostasis: the tendency for bodily functions to maintain equilibrium - eg. when people are too warm or too cold, brain mechanisms, mainly hypothalamus, initiate responses such as sweating (to cool the body) or shivering (to warm the body) - When an animal is deprived of something, a drive increases in proportion to the amount of deprivation (the hungrier you are, the more driven you are to find food) o This states crates arousal which encourages you to do something to reduce the drive - Habit: if over time a behaviour consistently reduces a drive o The likelihood of that behaviour occurring is due to drive and habit - Incentives: external objects or goals (stimuli), rather than internal drives, that motivate behaviours [Arousal and Performance] - Yerkes-dodson law: performance increases with arousal up to an optimal point and then decreases with increasing arousal - We are motivated to seek an optimal level of arousal, the level of arousal we most prefer o Too little and we are bored, too much and we are overwhelmed [Pleasure] - Sigmund Freud proposed that drives are satisfied according to the pleasure principle which dries people to seek pleasure and avoid pain - Hedonism: refers to humans’ desire for pleasantness - From an evolutionary perspective; behaviours associated with pleasure are often promote the animals’ survival and reproduction, whereas behaviours associated with pain interfere with survival and reproduction Some behaviours are motivated for their own sake - Extrinsic motivation: motivation to perform and activity because of the external goals toward which that activity is direction (working to get a paycheque) - Intrinsic motivation: motivation to perform an activity because of the value or pleasure associated with that acidity, rather than for an apparent external goal or purpose (listening to music) o Some activities satisfy our natural curiosity and creativity which is important to learn about the objects in an environment to allow us to use them for other tasks o Creativity is the tendency to generate ideas or alternatives that may be useful in solving problems, communicating, and entertaining ourselves and others [Rewarding intrinsic motives] - Rewarded behaviours increase in frequency - Extrinsic rewards can undermine intrinsic motivation - Eg. wont draw something if you know you wont get a reward (you are expecting one due to prior reward) [Self-determination theory and self perception theory] - According to self determination theory, people are motivated to satisfy needs for competence, relatedness to others, and autonomy, which is a sense of personal control o Argues that extrinsic rewards may reduce intrinsic value because such rewards undermine people’s feeling that they are choosing to do something for themselves - Feelings of autonomy and competence make people feel good about themselves and are inspired to do their most creative work - Self perception theory states that people seldom are aware of their specific motives and instead draw inferences about their motivations according to what seems to make the most sense o When you drink a lot of water you think you must have been thirsty, but are not aware of any physical sensations of thirst - When people cannot come up with obvious external explanations for their behaviours they conclude that they simply like the behaviours - Rewarding people for engaging in an intrinsic activity, gives them an alternative explanation for engaging in it: not because the behaviour is fun, but because of the reward - The reward has replaced the goal of pure pleasure People set goals to achieve - A goal is a desired outcome usually associated with some specific object or some future behavioural intention - Henry Murray proposed 27 basic psychosocial needs, including needs for power, autonomy, achievement, and play - Self regulation of behaviour is the process by which people alter or chance their behaviour to attain personal goals - Challenging, but not overly difficult, and specific goals are the best - Focusing on short term, concrete goals facilitates achieving long term goals [Self-efficacy and achievement motivation] - Peoples expectations for personal success play a key role in motivation - Self efficacy is the expectancy that your efforts will lead to success; this belief helps mobilize your energy o People with high self efficacy often set challenging goals that lead to success - Achievement motive is the desire to do well relative to standards of excellence o Those in high achievement motive set challenging but attainable personal goals, while those with low set extremely easy or impossibly high goals [Delayed Gratification] - One common challenge in self regulation is postponing immediate gratification in pursuit of long term goals - Delay of gratification is the process of transcending immediate temptations to achieve long term goals - Example with children; given the option of either eating a marshmallow right away or waiting several minutes and then getting 2 o The ones that waited and showed patience generally were more successful 10 years later and had higher SATs o They used various methods to resist, one of the most success strategies was turning hot cognitions into cold cognitions which involved mentally transforming the desired objet into something undesired o Hot cognition is the focus on rewarding or pleasurable aspects of objects, whereas cold cognitions focus on conceptual or symbolic meanings - Subcortical brain regions (amygdala, nucleus accumbens) are important for motivating behaviour, whereas prefrontal cortex performs cold cognitive processes, such as the control of thought and behaviour People have a need to belong Need to belong theory: the need for interpersonal attachments is a fundamental motive that has evolved for adaptive purposes - Survival used to depend on effective groups which shared food, provided mates, an helped care for offspring [Making and keeping friends] - The need to belong theory explains how people easily make friends - Not belonging increases a persons risk to consequences such as illnesses and premature death - This suggests us needing to belong is a basic motive driving behaviour - Exception is that students who chose to spend time alone reported lower levels of loneliness than those who preferred to not be alone [Anxiety and affiliation] - Do you like to be around other people when anxious or avoid them? - Research done showed that when people told they would be getting electrical shocks that were painful, preferred to wait in a room with others whereas alone (given 10 minute interval to wait) - Increased anxiety leads to increased affiliated motivations - However, the people preferred to wait with those in the same position as them (not the group of people that were told they are getting no pain from shocks) - Social comparison theory: we are motivated to have ourselves with those around us to test and validate personal beliefs and emotional responses (when we can compare ourselves with people similar to us) What determines how we eat? [Time and taste play roles] - We eat because we have classically conditioned to associate eating with regular mealtimes - The clocking signaling a mealtime is like Pavlovs metronome- it leads to various anticipatory responses that motivate eating behaviour and prepare body for digestion - A main factor that motivates eating is flavor- not just good tasting food but variety (animals with more variety tend to eat much more) o Reason for this is that we quickly grow tired of the flavor o Sensory specific satiety: Animals will stop eatinf relatively quickly if they just have one type of food to eat, but they will eat more if presented with a different type of food o Advantageous because we are more likely to satisfy nutritional requirements when we eat more, however large meals may have been adaptive when the food supply was scarce or unpredictable - Frontal lobe regions involved in assessing the foods reward value exhibit decreased activity if same food is eaten over and over, and increased activity when a new food is presented [Culture determines what we eat] - What we eat has little to do with logic, but instead what we believe is food o Eg. wont eat olives because you believe they are GROSS! – however to others they are tasty - What people will eat is determined by a combination of personal experience and cultural beliefs (preference determined by familiarity) - The avoidance of unfamiliar foods is an example of neophobia which is the fear of novel things - This behaviour makes sense because the avoidance of unfamiliar food is adaptive to survival - Families tend to like specific foods because of their upbringings (kids follow parents which followed their parents etc) - Cultural rules govern which foods are appropriate in different contexts (eg. you like fries and icecream but don’t like them together) - Local norms for what to eat and how to prepare it called cuisine reinforce many food preferences [Multiple neural processes control eating] - The hypothalamus is the brain structure that most influences eating o Integrates the various inhibitory and excitatory feedings messages and organizes behaviours involved in eating o Damage can cause dramatic changes in eating behaviour and weight o Tumour in this area can cause patient to become obese o Region of hypothalamus: VMH (ventromedial)/middle damage causes animals to eat great quantities of food (condition called hyperphagia) and become extremely obese o Damage to outer or lateral area of hypothalamus (LH) leads to condition called aphagia in which diminished eating behaviour leads to weigh loss and eventual death unless the animal is force fed - Prefrontal cortex is involved in the taste of certain foods and essentially processes the reward value of it o Craving triggered by seeing tasty food is associated with activity in the limbic system  Overweight people show more signs of activity when viewing good tasting food whereas normal weight individuals o Damage to the limbic system (right frontal lobes) sometimes causes gourmand syndrome in which people become obsessed with fine food and food preparation (quality ad variety) o The obsession seems to centre on foods reward properties [Internal Sensations] - Scientists believed that eating was a classic homeostatic system in which some sort of detector would notice deviations from the set point and would signal the animal to start or stop eating - People who have gotten their stomachs removed still report to feel hungry - Glucostatic theory: proposes that the bloodstream is monitored for its glucose levels o Animals sensitive to deficiencies in glucose levels because it is the primary fuel for metabolism and crucial for neuronal activity - Lipostatic theory: proposes a set point for body fat in which deviations from the set point initiate compensatory behaviours to return to homeostasis o Eg. when an animal loses fat, hunger signals motivate eating and a return to the set point - Leptin is a hormone involved in fat regulation o Leptin is released form fat cells as more fat is stored; acts slowly o Travels to the hypothalamus where it acts to inhibit eating behaviour o Important for long term fat regulation than short term eating control o Might also influence the reward properties of food and make it less appetizing o Animals lacking this gene become extremely obese; injecting hormone leads to rapid loss of body fat o Ghrelin affects eating and originates in the stomach and surges before meals; then decreases after people eat and so ma play and important role in triggering eating  When people lose weight, ghrelin motivates additional eating in a homeostatic fashion What factors motivate sexual behaviour? - Most durable and power motivator - Research shows women’s sexual behaviours are closely related to males Biological factors influence sexual behaviour - Sexual response cycle: A pattern of physiological responses during sexual activity (4 stages) o Excitement phase occurs when people contemplate sexual activity or begin engaging in behaviours such as kissing or touching in sensual manners  During this stage, blood flows to the genitals and people report feelings of arousal o Plateau phase: pulse rate, breathing, and blood pleasure increase, as do the various other signs of arousal o Orgasm phase: consisting of involuntary muscle contractions and heavy breathing o Resolution phase is a release of sexual tension and a slow return to a normal state of arousal [Hormones] - Involved in producing and terminating sexual behaviours o Influence physical development of the brain and body through phase of puberty; where hormone levels increase throughout the body and stimulate physical changes (development of secondary sexual characteristics) o Influence through motivation ; activate reproductive behaviour - Males have greater quantity of androgens which are more important than estrogens - Testosterone (a type of androgen) involved in sexual functioning o Drives male sexual behaviour - Oxytocin – impo5tant hormone in males and females which is released during sexual arousal and orgasm; believes promotes feelings of love and attachment between partners and seems to be involved in social behaviour more generally - Hypothalamus is the brain region most important for stimulating sexual behaviour (controls release of hormones into the body) [Neurotransmitters] - Can affect various aspects of sexual response - Eg. dopamine responsible for physical experience of pleasure - Serotonin also involved in sexual behaviour (most treatments for depression) - Nitric oxide: critical for sexual behavior; sexual stimulation leads to nitric oxide production, which then promotes blood flow to both the penis and clit and plays role in arousal o When this system fails, males cannot maintain erection [Variations across the menstrual cycle] - Hypothalamus controls the release of sex hormones in females differently - Depends on menstrual cycle whereas for males it’s the same rate over time - Unknown essentially, but apparently when females ovulating they have certain desirable partner characteristics [Neural correlates of viewing erotica] - When viewing certain sexual images or clips, the amygdala is activated (in men) - Erotica activates reward regions in the brain, such as various limbic structures Cultural scripts and cultural rules shape sexual interactions - Sexual scripts: cognitive beliefs about how sexual episode should be enacted o Indicates who makes first move, how should act afterward etc - Scripts differ in many countries such as where arranged marriages take place [Double standards] - All known cultures have some form of sexual morality- indicating the importance to society of regulating sexual behaviour [Sexual differences in sexual motives] - Men have a higher level of sexual motivation compared to females - Erotic plasticity: refers to the extent that sex drive can be shaped by social, cultural, and situational factors o Suggests women have higher erotic plasticity because their sexual desires change with factors, whereas the males remain constant - Sexual strategies theory: evolutionary theory that suggests men and women rank the important of qualities in their relationship patterns differently because of gender-specific adaptive problems o Women differ in how they pass their genes along to future generations Mating strategies differ between sexes - For average woman looking for a long term relationship, status was a necessity and looks were a luxury - In contrast, looks matter most to males when looking for a partner - Evolution considerations: o The modern era is a tiny fraction of human evolutionary history o Modern min resides in a stone age brain, solving adaptive problems that have faced our species for thousands of years - Frontal loves work to inhibit people from braking social rules, which are determined largely by culture - The modern era introduces new adaptive challenges based on societal standards of conducts; which shape the context in which men and women view sexual behaviour as desirable and appropriate People Differ in Sexual Orientation  Makes very little sense , homosexuality would not lead to reproduction and therefore would not survive in the gene pool  One theory is
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